November 27, 2005

Nevada's Online State News Journal


Nevada History:

[From J. Wells Kelly, First Directory of Nevada Territory (1862)]





Lyon County—Boundary.

            BEGINNING at the south-east corner of Washoe County; thence, following the north line of Ormsby County in a southeasterly direction, to the Half Way House, between Silver City and Carson City ; thence, following the said line of Ormsby County to Douglas County ; thence, following the northerly boundary of Douglas County to the one hundred and nineteenth meridian of west longitude; thence, north, five miles ; thence, by direct line, north-westerly, to a point on Carson River, one mile below Reed's Station; thence, north, three miles; thence, westerly by a direct line, to the southern boundary of the Gold Hill Mining District, but running so as to include in this county the Devil's Gate Toll House ; thence, continuing westerly in the same course, to the eastern boundary of Washoe County; and thence, southerly, along the eastern boundary of said county, to the place of beginning. County-seat, DAYTON.

Churchill County—Boundary.

            Beginning at the north-east corner of Storey County, and running south, along the eastern line of said county, to the northern line of Douglas County; thence, easterly along the said northern line of Douglas County, and the northern line of Esmeralda County, to the one hundred and sixteenth meridian; thence, north, along said meridian, to the fortieth degree of north latitude; thence, west, on the said fortieth degree, to where it strikes the old Immigrant Road leading from the Sink of the Humboldt to the lower crossing of Truckee River; thence, westerly, along said road, to the point of beginning. County-seat, BUCKLAND'S.

            As these two counties are, by the law erecting them, connected for judicial purposes, we shall consider them together. At the present time it is a question to be settled by the courts, whether they are also one for political purposes, or not—a set of officials for each claiming to have been chosen at the recent election.


            Lyon County is named after the late General Lyon, who fell at the battle of Wilson's Creek, near Springfield, while engaged suppressing the rebellion in Missouri last summer. Churchill is also named after an older and much esteemed officer in the army, the name having, in the first instance, been given to the fort erected within its limits in 1860. The general features of the country throughout both counties, as well as their geological characteristics and natural products, are very similar ; they being, like Storey, less remarkable for their agricultural than for their mineral wealth. Several mining districts have been laid out within their boundaries,—some of them at an early period. The Devil's Gate District, adjacent to Silver City, was the second regular mining district ever created in the Territory—Virginia being the first. In nearly every direction about that town, for a distance of several miles, quartz veins rich in gold and silver are met with ; though the grounds of the Daney Company, in the southern part of the district, near Carson River, are by far the most valuable, rivaling, and in the estimation of many surpassing, those of Gold Hill. The rock taken from this claim is, no doubt, equal in richness to any ever discovered in the Territory, yet the ledge is not so wide as in a number of claims at Gold Hill ; the latter running from ten to forty, and even fifty feet in width, while that of the Daney reaches only from twelve to twenty-five feet. This mine, however, has been opened with great care, and in the most scientific manner, besides being near extensive water power, which, by cheapening the cost of working the ore, will more than compensate for what it lacks is being of equal magnitude with the best claims at Gold Hill. This valuable mine is distant in a straight line about five miles from those at Gold Hill, yet, as the rock obtained at the two localities is precisely similar, and it is in range with the supposed direction of the Comstock Lead, there is no longer any question as to its forming a part of the same.

            Placer mining was begun in Lyon County as early as 1849 ; very good diggings having been found at Chinatown, now Dayton, by the immigration of that year. Here, and as far up Gold Cañon as the present site of Silver City, the bars paid at the rate of an ounce a day to the hand, for several years, and very


fair wages for a much longer time. Even so late as the summer of '59, these localities, as well as Six Mile Cañon; continued to be worked, though they had by this time declined to about five dollar diggings. At Chinatown, also, the first house ever built east of what is now Carson City, was put up by James McMarlin in the fall of '49. Having crossed the Plains that summer, he and his brother John finding a few persons at work there, stopped, and put up the old log building still standing in the town, and afterwards used by Major Ormsby, and still later by Keller, as a store. John McMarlin, with a companion named John Williams, was killed by the Indians while packing in from California in 1858. This happened on the mountain about one mile above Slippery Ford hill, and was the work of some renegade Pah-Utes and Washoes, both these tribes having disclaimed the act, and exerted themselves to secure and punish the offenders. The grave of Williams may still be seen in a grove of evergreens on a little flat near the road ; the body of McMarlin having been brought home, was buried on the farm where his brother now resides.

            At no other points than those mentioned do placer diggings of sufficient richness to pay for working appear to have been found, though there seems to have been an idea entertained by certain pioneer miners that silver existed on the Eastern Slope several years before the Comstock Lead was discovered. It cannot be said, however, that this was a prevalent opinion ; the notion having been confined, so far as we can learn, to a couple of brothers named Allen and Hosea Grosh. These men seem to have been possessed of a good deal of knowledge in regard to minerals, and had in some manner got the impression that there were silver veins east of the Sierras. Hence, as early as '55 they emigrated to this side of the mountains, and working sufficiently at placer diggings to defray expenses, engaged in prospecting for that metal. Being of a quiet and reserved turn of mind, they never communicated much of their thoughts on this matter to their associates, nor were the latter of a class vexed with that thirst for knowledge that led them to be inquisitive on the subject. In fact, the brothers, though generally well-liked, were looked upon by their more thoughtless and hilarious companions as visionary fellows,


and as such were suffered to think their thoughts and pursue their business unquestioned and unheeded. Hence, although they were constantly engaged obtaining samples of rock, and testing it for silver, but little attention was paid to them or their labors, and both would have been forgotten but for the subsequent finding of that metal so near the scene of their explorations, and of which they might themselves have become the discoverers but for an accident that brought their work to a sad and summary termination. In the year '57, Hosea Grosh, while at work in a shaft, struck the point of a pick into his foot, inflicting a severe wound, and one which, owing to the want of surgical skill, after a few days brought on lockjaw and proved fatal. At this time Comstock, who afterward gave his name to the celebrated silver lead, had a cabin a little below the spot where Silver City now stands, to which the young man was carried, and where Comstock attended him with his characteristic kindness. In '59 a mound was still to be seen opposite the cabin, a few rods up the hill, on the south side of Gold Cañon, marking the spot where poor Grosh had been buried. Like most of the early graves in this then quiet and lonely ravine—since changed into a thronged and busy thoroughfare—it is now obliterated, and soon this pioneer of the silver land will rest, like most of the early adventurers on the " Eastern Slope," in an unknown and unmarked sepulchre.

            The surviving brother, pining for the loss of one to whom he seems to have been much attached, became disheartened, and returning to California himself soon after, sickened and died. With the death of these unfortunate men all purpose of seeking silver in these regions perished, leaving its existence to be revealed to the world, as has been the case in most notable discoveries of the kind, by the agency of accident alone. How these men came to think there was silver in this vicinity is not apparent, since they never communicated to any one their reasons for this opinion. They might have formed it from talking with those who had passed through the country concerning its geological features, or gathered it from the traditions which assigned to the belt of which this formed a portion a marvelous wealth. Certain it is, they had just and well-defined notions in regard to the matter, and came very


near attaining the great object of their hopes and toils—how near will appear from the following circumstance :

            In the summer of '59, and but a few weeks after the discovery of the Comstock Ledge, H. Degroot, who has since visited nearly every important locality lying within the rim of the Great Basin, while examining the mountain ranges that skirt Gold Cañon, came upon a shaft sunk in a high bench on Grizzly Hill, at the mouth of American Ravine. As the work had evidently been done a long time before, and there were remains of charcoal and evidences of a sort of smelting work having been erected on the spot, his curiosity was excited to learn something of its history. Examining the shaft more carefully, he found that it had been filled up near the top by means of logs placed across it, upon which dirt had been thrown, as if with the design of concealing its real depth—subsequently found to be forty feet. On inquiry he ascertained that this was the work of the Grosh brothers, who had here, two years before, actually taken out argentiferous rock, and reduced it in this rude furnace, within three miles of the Ophir Claim, where the great mother lead was first laid open, and on a direct line between that claim and the Daney ground, now known to be a portion of that lead ; so nearly did these ill-faring but well deserving men—dreamers in that day, seers in this—attain to fame and fortune in becoming the finders of the great Comstock Ledge.

            None of the old residents were aware of the existence of this excavation, though they knew these men had been at work in this neighborhood. It is a curious circumstance that this shaft having been re-opened in 1860, the remains of a female were found at the bottom of it, but whether they were those of a white or Indian, or how they came there, no one could tell. The opening now goes by the name of the "Lost Shaft."

            There are various other interesting reminiscences connected with the early history of the region embraced within the limits of these two counties, and which, if space allowed, we should be glad to enlarge upon. Here, at a point on Carson River thirty miles below Dayton, was the scene of the Williams Massacre, which led to the Indian war in the Spring of '60, that resulted so disastrously to the whites, and prostrated for


the time being, every interest in the country : here belongs, in good part, a narration of the sufferings and losses of the early immigrants, and here was the theatre of many a bold exploit on the part of the trappers who first pushed over the Rocky Mountains—while many an Indian legend and tale of heroism might be told of the tribes who at a former day inhabited this section. But all this must be left to the future chronicler of these primitive times, while we pursue our task of pointing out what, though perhaps less entertaining, is of more immediate use.

            As has been stated, there are several mining districts, containing numerous quartz ledges, within the borders of these two counties. Of these ledges the following, and perhaps many others, are entitled to mention, because of their, manifest value; the large amount of work which has been performed upon them or some other circumstance, tending to give them notoriety : First is the Daney Ledge, worthy of extended comment for all the reasons stated. Near the Daney are a number of claims possessing, more or less value because of their supposed location on the same ledge ; of these the Caney, named after Col. Caney, the original locator, stands first—the Independence, Emigrant, White & Co., Maid of Erin, Ellsworth, Union, Fashion, Gov. Nye, United States, Wapella, Silver City, North America, Buckeye, Pride of the West, Mount Hope, Gold Bluff, Dorence, Wayne, American, Señorita, "Lost Shaft," Vermilion, Del Rey, Chenango, Downs, Sarah Bladen, Twin Lode, Henry Gratton, Florence, Josephine, and the Washington.

            The Montgomery Ledge, in the Palmyra District, nine miles east of Dayton, and the Whitman, three miles north-east of it, are considered valuable mines, and have both been extensively opened, the former by means of an eighty foot shaft with drifts, and the latter by a tunnel of large dimensions carried in over thirteen hundred feet. In the Montgomery Ledge gold predominates; in the Whitman, silver. Several large ledges were located half a mile north of Fort Churchill, in the summer of '60, and a good deal of work done upon them, but of late no mining operations have been going on there. A portion of the Flowery District is in Lyon County, and the Silver Hill Dis-

SILVER CITY.            199

trict, lying east of Carson Sink, is believed to contain many veins rich in argentiferous galena.

            In the Butte Mining District, seven miles east of Dayton, an extensive deposit of bituminous coal was found last August by Col. Whitman. The size of the field has not yet been fully determined, though a vein of genuine coal, and of superior quality, has been struck on the Whitman Claim, and prospects equally good obtained on six or eight claims to the north and west, though these have not yet been so thoroughly opened. By very competent geologists, who have carefully examined these deposits and tested the coal, its discovery is looked upon as hardly of secondary importance to the finding of the precious metals themselves, since the product of the latter must in a few years be greatly circumscribed without the aid of this fuel. With adequate supplies of this the proprietors of the mines and mills may dismiss all anxiety as to their productiveness in future. Signs of coal are also said to exist at a point north-east of Dayton, on the strength of which a number of claims have been taken up and shafts commenced for prospecting them. It will thus be seen that this portion of the Territory is not destitute of the precious metals, nor yet of that still more useful mineral so necessary to their successful extraction.


SILVER CITY.—Quartz Mills.

            PIONEER MILL OF THE WASHOE GOLD AND SILVER MINING COMPANY, No. 1, is situated at Silver City, immediately below the Devil's Gate. It is the first quartz mill ever put up, as well as started, within the limits of Nevada Territory, having commenced running August 13, 1860. It was erected under the superintendence of Mr. Almarin B. Paul, who has since continued to conduct its operations with credit to himself and profit to the owners, of whom he is one. The machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine, working thirty-two stamps, and having a capacity to crush thirty tons of rock per day. It gives employment to fifteen men, and uses twenty-four amalgamating pans with Paul's Concentrating Tables.

            BURKE & CO.'s MILL—Formerly McNulty's Mill—is situated


at the junction of Gold Cañon and American Ravine, in the lower end of Silver City. It was the second quartz mill started in the Territory, and has always been run with success. It is at present owned by Burke, Hillyer & Brevoort, the latter being superintendent. It is driven by steam ; has five stamps, with a grate battery ; two of Brevoort's Grinders, working on the principle of the grist mill, and crushing the coarser rock not passing through the grates. It is also furnished with ten of Brevoort's Grinders and a ten-foot arrastra, and crushes about ten tons per day. Like Paul's Mill, this cost a large sum, having been put up when everything was expensive.

            TRENCH'S MILL—Built in the summer of '60, at a cost of about forty thousand dollars, is situated on American Ravine, near its mouth. It is propelled by a thirty horse power steam engine, has twelve stamps, and crushes twelve tons of rock per day, from the proprietors—Trench & Sparrow's—claim at Gold Hill. The mill uses two of Brevoort's Grinders. In the amalgamating department are used eighteen of Trench's pans, and the Hatch process, being the first to make use of it in the Territory. Work for both gold and silver ; employ sixteen hands in the mill, which is under the supervision of Mr. Joseph Trench. The main building is eighty by fifty feet, with dwellings, out-stables and other out-buildings.

            SILVER CITY QUARTZ MILL—J. Lambert, G. T. Weaver, and J. W. Sullivan, proprietors —is located a little above Trench's Mill, and has a thirty-five horse power steam-engine ; five stamps ; two Brevoort's Grinders ; crushes ten tons per day. Amalgamates with nineteen Brevoort's pans, saving both gold and silver, and by a process of their own. This mill commenced running in February, 1861, and cost about thirty-five thousand dollars.

            UNION MILL—John C. Curry, foreman—on American Ravine, about fifty yards above Silver City Mill ; driven by steam, with a forty horse power engine; runs ten stamps, crushing ten tons of rock per day. Company employ six hands, and amalgamate with the Hungarian bowl ; crush custom rock.

SILVER CITY.            201.

            PIONEER QUARTZ CO.'s MILL, in Gold Carton, near Devil's Gate, has a forty horse power steam-engine, running three five-stamp batteries, crushing twenty tons of rock per day. Work ten men in two changes. Company use Knox's Amalgamator, together with an improvement of their own in the muller, and in the steam die, answering as a false bottom and heater in working for silver. Will shortly crush rock from their own claim at Gold Hill. George L. Smith, superintendent of Mill ; John H. Todman, superintendent of Mine.

            SWANSEA MILL AND MINING COMPANY.—Messrs. Tregloan, Long, Johns, Nevins, Dunn, Hutchison, Goodrich and Carrick, proprietors. Situated in Gold Cañon, one mile below Silver City. Has a forty horse power steam-engine ; twelve stamps, weighing eight hundred pounds each. Machinery from Pacific Foundry, San Francisco. Crush twenty tons per day ; doing custom work, and purchase rock. Work for both gold and silver. Employ twelve hands. Amalgamate with Hungarian bowls. John Tregloan, superintendent.

            EXCELSIOR MILL.—Situated a little above the Swansea. Is driven by a forty-five horse power steam-engine, built at the Vulcan Iron Works, San Francisco. Has eight double-stemmed stamps, weighing nine hundred pounds each, crushing sixteen tons per day—soon to have its present capacity doubled. Use process similar to one now employed at Derrick's Mill, at Gold Hill, and also two ten-foot arrastras. Will soon erect furnaces for roasting and concentrating the sulphurets. Messrs. Briggs, Thomson and Johnson, proprietors. John Briggs, superintendent.

            OSGOOD & CO'S MILL.—Osgood & Chapin, proprietors. Is situated at the junction of Holmes & Logan and Dayton roads. Worked by an eighteen horse power steam-engine, from Goss & Lambard's Iron Works, Sacramento. Has eight stamps, and crushes twelve tons per day—custom work.  Employs twelve hands, and uses the Bertola Patent Process, working for all the precious metals. Main building, ninety-five by thirty-five feet. Charles A. Chapin, superintendent.


            VAN HORN & CO.'s MILL.—On west side Gold Cañon, one and a half miles above Dayton. Is driven by water, conveyed through a ditch one quarter mile long, and falling on an overshot wheel forty feet in diameter. At present containing six stamps, though six more will be added, propelled by steam. Both mills, when in operation, will crush about twenty tons of rock per day. To employ twelve hands, under supervision of Henry Van Horn. Crush rock from their own claim—the Washington—at Gold Hill. Messrs. Van Horn, Weston and Simon, proprietors.

            EASTERN SLOPE MILL.—Situated at Silver City, one quarter mile below the Devil's Gate. Has twelve double-stemmed stamps, driven by a forty horse power steam-engine, from the Pacific Foundry, and crushes twenty tons of rock per day. Employ twelve hands. Use Novelty Co's Silver Process—an entirely new one—supposed to be the most practicable and economical for saving both gold and silver. J. J. Cushing, superintendent.

            THE PHOENIX MILL, owned by Bowton & Uznay, is situated on the south side of Gold Cañon, about one half mile below Silver City. It is driven by a forty horse power steam-engine, and crushes from thirty to forty tons of rock per day. Cost of mill and appurtenances, with enlargement, over fifty thousand dollars. This mill has recently been renovated and extended, being now one of the largest, as it has always been one of the most successful, in the Territory.

            KELLOGG's MILL, is on Gold Cañon, about one half mile below Silver City. Building, forty by sixty-four feet. Steam-engine of twenty horse power. Has eight stamps, weighing six hundred pounds each, and crushes fifteen tons of rock per day. Uses the Chilian mill in amalgamating.

            PETALUMA MILL. — (Accidentally omitted in Gold Hill Directory.)—Messrs. Church, Tustin, Fritsch, and Zartman, proprietors. Is situated at Gold Hill, and is driven by a twenty-one horse power steam-engine, from the Pacific Foundry, San Francisco. It employs eight hands, crushing twelve tons per

SILVER CITY.            203

day, and doing custom work. Use sixteen Hungarian bowls for amalgamating, and twelve pans for working silver sulphurets. The company have a process similar to Johnson's.

* * *

LYON COUNTY.       213

DAYTON, and Vicinity.

            The history of this town, one of the earliest settled, and now one of the most thrifty and promising east of the mountains, is worthy of notice, as illustrating the rapid growth of well-situated localities, and the almost inextricable confusion in which the title to much of the most valuable real estate in the Territory has been involved, through the neglect of our legislators, the absence of lawful authority, and the violence and injustice of certain classes of our people. At this point, as we have seen, a trading post was erected in 1849, for the accommodation of those engaged in mining near by, as well as for the immigrant trade for which it was favorably situated, being at one end of what was termed the "Little" or "Ten Mile Desert "—the stretch of barren country between there and Dutch Nick's. During the subsequent ten years quite a little hamlet grew up, being mostly composed of miners' cabins, and the hovels of the Chinese, who, to the number of thirty or forty, first came in during the year 1856, and increasing afterwards to one hundred and eighty, again fell off to about the original number in 1859, when the silver was discovered. The presence of this people in so large number imparted to the place the name of Chinatown, an appellation it continued to bear until the summer of 1861, when, after an abortive attempt of fastening upon it the absurd title of "Nevada City," it was christened Dayton, a name the good people having at a meeting held November 3, 1861, duly indorsed, that will no doubt be generally adopted.

            The discovery of the rich mines in 1859, instead of benefiting, was, in the first instance, an injury to Chinatown, by drawing away not only the mining population but also many of its permanent residents, and causing such houses as were built of lumber to be taken down and removed to Virginia and Gold Hill. Thus the town was reduced to five or six houses, and its business nearly dried up. Its principal residents in July of that year, were Joseph Keller and Isaac Cohen, selling goods in the Old Pioneer Log Store ; W. H. Howe, trading in the building he still occupies ; Mr. A. Nall, living with his family opposite Keller's, keeping a public


house; M. Smith and family, near Nall's; Mr. J. Wood, keeping a butcher shop ; Charles Pandorff miner, having a small -frame house still standing a little east of Keller's; Degroot & Tagliabue, having a store near where the Tyler House now stands. Morris Epstein also opened a store during this summer in the west part of the town near Rose's Ditch. Wm. R. Johnson took the butcher shop of Mr. Wood in September, and became a permanent resident. There was also a blacksmith shop in the place, and several transient families, besides the Chinese, who to the number of thirty-five were living in a group of huts made of stones, mud and tule, and forming a sort of " Chinese quarter" west of the Old Log Store, and on the same side of the street. In the fall Messrs. Logan & Holmes started a four-stamp quartz mill driven by horse power on the flat one quarter of a mile south of the town—Messrs. Hastings & Woodworth having a little before erected a water mill one mile further up the river. During the month of September Messrs. Degroot, Tagliabue & Johnson, took up a tract of land on Carson River below and adjoining the town, which, as they also secured the stream, was the first attempt ever made at securing a water privilege on that river, so early did these gentlemen perceive the wealth of the country and appreciate the advantages of this point for milling purposes.

            The winter of 1859 and 1860, as is well known, was a very severe one, and Chinatown, instead of going ahead, scarcely held its own in the matter of population and improvement. In February, however, a company composed mostly of residents of Carson City, proceeded to lay out a town immediately below the ancient village to which they gave the name of "Mineral Rapids." A single cabin put up about the same time constituted the sum total of improvements made in the new city that year. Early in the spring Henry Degroot inclosed and planted a garden on his claim, being the first effort at cultivation ever made in this section of country. During the Indian difficulties that followed soon after, his place was despoiled, but whether by the whites or savages was never ascertained. Throughout the summer of 1860, business as well as improvements languished in this entire neighborhood, and nothing was done. During the ensuing fall greater attention began to be paid to taking

LYON COUNTY.       215

up water privileges on Carson River, and before winter this stream had been claimed for these purposes from the mouth of Clear Creek to Reed's Station, a distance of twenty-five miles. The building of mills, begun the year before, was now entered upon more largely and pushed with energy, giving a new impulse to the town, which has since continued growing, until it is now the third—as it will shortly be the first place in the Territory. That this latter opinion may not seem unfounded, we may state that there are now within a distance that makes Dayton their natural and most convenient center, twenty-one quartz mills in operation, with half as many more in course of construction, or soon to be undertaken. Nor is her dependence solely, or even chiefly upon the water power in the neighborhood. When this shall be employed to its utmost capacity, a still more important motor agent will be found in the coal near by, and which, with a railroad completed to Gold Hill, and a wagon road track to the Daney grounds, will make this town the grand center of a milling and mining interest, the combined products of which can only be computed by millions.

            The right to construct the railroad, above referred to, was granted by the Legislative Assembly at its recent session, and is to be completed from Gold Hill to Dayton, and thence to Carson City, by the first of June, 1864—otherwise the grant is to be null and void.

            Dayton is now situated on the great Overland Route, and at a point from which the travel cannot well be diverted. A new road has lately been completed across the Pine Nut Range, intersecting the main route to the Mono country, shortening the distance now traveled in going there from Virginia fully twenty miles, and thus placing Dayton on what will soon be another great thoroughfare, and making it, as it is now the most central, also the most accessible point from all parts of the Territory.

Quartz Mills.

            With two or three exceptions, the mills in the Dayton District are driven by water, and run day and night, Sundays excepted. Commencing with the highest on the Carson River, being within the limits of Lyon County, we have the


            EUREKA MILL, situate one mile below Stewart & Henning's, described in sketch of Ormsby County, driven by two center discharge wheels, the one six and the other six and one half feet in diameter ; water brought through ditch and flume fifteen hundred feet, from a dam one hundred and twenty feet wide ; building eighty by seventy-five feet, erected in 1861; employ twenty-five hands ; has twenty stamps, four arrastras, and crushes thirty tons of rock per day. Company purchase rock, also crush their own from Gold Hill. In the amalgamating department is used Hurd's process, forty-two Hungarian bowls, twelve copper concentrators, six flues, and two Varney pans ; mill six miles from company's mine at Gold Hill.

            Next, one and a half miles below the Eureka, is

            THE SAN FRANCISCO MILL—Charles Itgen, A. H. Doscher, Charles McWilliams, and William C. Davol, proprietors. This mill runs twenty stamps, crushing twenty tons rock per day. The company employ ten men ; do custom work at present, but will shortly crush rock from their own. claim at Gold Hill. The main building is sixty feet by fifty ; the machinery is driven by a center-discharge wheel, six and one half feet in diameter. The water is conducted to the wheel from a substantial dam four hundred feet above, through a flume two feet by four, which carries but about one half the water the company have control of. As the demand becomes urgent, the whole will be brought into use. This establishment is furnished with a steam-boiler for heating the water employed in the batteries. The iron work is from the Miners' Foundry, San Francisco. The company amalgamate by means of the Hatch process, which, after a long and thorough trial, they pronounce the acme of gold and silver saving inventions, claiming that the ores treated by this method yield twenty, and in some cases, forty per cent. more than by any other yet discovered. William C. Davol, superintendent.

            THE FRANKLIN MILL, a little further down the river, and nearly opposite the renowned Daney Ledge, is a large and substantial structure, the main edifice being thirty by sixty feet, built with the greatest care and of the best material. The mill

LYON COUNTY.       217

is driven by a center-discharge wheel six and a half feet in diameter with twenty-four inch buckets. The water is conducted one half mile through a flume seven feet wide, and capable of carrying twice the quantity required for the capacity of the present mill. The latter, however, is to be enlarged so as to use the entire body of water in a short time. The dam is built of stone, and very massive, being twenty feet wide at the bottom and ten at the top. The iron work and machinery, all unusually heavy, and of the highest finish, are from the foundry of Booth & Co., Marysville. For the present but ten stamps and two arrastras, crushing twenty tons of rock per day, will be brought into use. Fifteen men are now employed, a force that will be augmented with the contemplated enlargement of the mill. The process here used consists of the shaking tables, with Hungarian bowls and riffles. This mill was built for the express purpose of crushing the ore from the lead of the Daney Company, it being distant from their grounds one mile and a half. A fine wagon road has been built between the two points, which, having a moderate descent from the mine to the mill, greatly facilitates the transportation of the rock. Cost of road, dam, mill, and outbuildings, about sixty thousand dollars. Owners of a mine immensely prolific, with a water power of such capacity in close proximity, out of debt, and able to supply other mills than their own with their rich ores, this company would seem to be in the best possible condition for effecting advantageous sales of their property, if such be their purpose, or carrying on their operations with eminent success. Superintendent of the mill, J. McDonald ; of the mine, Mr. Leon Level.

            BARTON & CO.'s MILL—is situated on the east bank of the river, between Sproul's Mill and the Franklin ; J. N. Barton, J. R. Brett, Levi Hite and John Barton, proprietors. The water is carried through a race one and a half miles from a substantial dam to the mill, which crushes by means of four arrastras, reducing eight tons of rock per day. Crushes rock from the proprietors' claim adjoining the Sabine ground at Gold Hill, which is found to yield almost equal to any taken from the well-known claims at that place. Company employ


seven hands, and make use of the Patio process. J. N. Barton, superintendent.

            SPROUL & CO.'s EXCELSIOR MILL—on the same side of the river, and a little below Barton's, runs ten stamps, with waterpower sufficient to carry over a hundred. The water is conveyed to the mill through a ditch twenty-five feet wide and fifty-five rods long, being taken from a dam one hundred and seventy-five feet in width, the construction of both costing over five thousand dollars. The machinery is propelled by an iron turbine wheel five feet in diameter. The amalgamating process is conducted by means of twenty Hungarian pans, the company using a silver process of their own, which they believe will prove effectual. Fifteen hands are now employed, a number that will be increased with the contemplated enlargement of the mill; crushing rock from the owners' claim at Gold Hill. Proprietors, J. R. Sproul, C. C. Goodwin, Levi Hite, and J. R. Brett, the former being also superintendent.

            CARSON RIVER QUARTZ MILL—Joseph Woodworth, Wm. Stewart, and John B. Winters, proprietors—is situated at a locality on Carson River known as Camp Woodworth, one and one half miles above Dayton. The mill, which contains ten stamps and four large arrastras, is driven by two turbine wheels, securing a large amount of power. The water is brought through a ditch twenty-three feet wide, and two thousand feet long. It employs ten hands, and crushes twenty tons of rock per day. The Hungarian bowls and the Hayden process are used. Company crush rock from their own claim—the Henderson—at Gold Hill. With its numerous outbuildings the establishment forms quite a hamlet, Mr. Mosheimer having a ten stamp mill immediately adjoining. The first quartz mill erected in the Territory was at this spot, having been put up by Hastings & Woodworth, in the fall of 1859. The first steam mill, as we have said, was put up by Mr. Paul, at Silver City, the following summer. The Carson River Mill is under the superintendence of J. B. Winters.

            THE AURORA MILLS—owned by J. Mosheimer, John D. Winters, Joseph D. Winters, and G. Kustel—the latter superin-

LYON COUNTY.       219

ten dent, is located on Carson River, one-fourth of a mile south of Dayton. The establishment first started at this point was the four-stamp horse power mill of Logan & Holmes, started as has been mentioned in the fall of '59. It was a mere experimental work for testing the Gold Hill rock, and having answered its purpose, was superseded by a water mill the following summer. The present mill has three crushing departments, one supplied with ten, the other with twelve, and a third with sixteen stamps, which, in connection with three arrastras, crush forty tons of rock per day. The company employ forty hands, and crush their own rock from Gold Hill. In the amalgamating department they use the Hungarian bowls, the percussion and concentrating tables, barrels and pans, working for both gold and silver. The mill is driven by two turbine wheels of thirty horse power each. The water is brought through a race six hundred yards long.

            KELLER & CO.'s MILL—situated on the west side of the river, a few hundred yards below the Aurora, is sixty by seventy-five feet in extent ; runs fifteen stamps, and four arrastras, crushing about twenty tons of rock per day. It is driven by a center-discharge wheel, employs eight hands, and works the ore for both gold and silver. Proprietors, Joseph Keller and Isaac Cohen.

            SOLOMON & JACOBS' MILL—a little below Keller's, on the same side of the river, is a steam mill of small capacity, working ten arrastras, and employing about the same number of hands.

            SUTRO'S MILL.—A few rods further down is a mill working ten hands. It has ten stamps, and crushes about twelve tons of rock per day.

            THE DAYTON MILL—Ford, Berry & Co., proprietors—is situated at the lower end of the town of Dayton. The machinery of this mill is propelled by water. It now runs fifteen stamps, but the company have sufficient power to drive double the number, and the mill is soon to undergo a corresponding enlargement. They now employ six hands and crush


about fifteen tons of rock per day. Use in the amalgamating department the improved Hungarian pans. Their dam and flume are substantial structures, and were built at a heavy expense. The mill is under the superintendence of L. J. Carr.

            THE MINERAL RAPIDS MILL—located on the west bank of Carson River, a few rods from the Dayton Mill, and owned by Colton & Smith, is driven by a forty horse power steam-engine, from the Vulcan Foundry, San Francisco. It runs ten stamps and four twelve foot arrastras, crushing twenty tons of rock per day. The Hungarian pans are used in working for gold, and Johnson's method, for saving the silver. The proprietors do custom work and purchase ores.

            THE ROCK POINT MILL—situated on the west bank of the river, one fourth of a mile below Dayton—is owned by Hugh Logan, J. R. Logan, James P. Holmes, and John Black. It is driven by water, and is one of the most extensive establishments in the country, the main building being ninety feet by one hundred feet, and the power equal to one hundred horses. It has forty stamps for fine, and two large ones for coarse crushing, and is capable of reducing fifty tons of rock per day, working it for both gold and silver. Thirty hands are employed, and in the amalgamating department sixteen of Varney's and thirty-two of Howland's pans are used. The tailings from these are subjected to the Patio process. The machinery is from the Miners' Foundry, San Francisco. The water is brought a distance of two thousand feet, nine hundred of which is through a flume ten feet wide and three feet deep. The dam is built of stone and timber, and with the race cost over ten thousand dollars. The entire cost of the establishment will be about seventy-five thousand dollars. The wheel is a ponderous structure, being sixteen feet in diameter, twelve feet breast, and furnished with forty buckets, which when full carry a weight of six thousand pounds. The mill crushes rock from the Logan & Holmes Claim, at Gold Hill, one of the best in that locality. The proprietors have constructed a new road for hauling down rock, which, besides shortening the dis-

LYON COUNTY.       221

tance over a mile, secures a better grade than the old route. Superintendents, Logan and Black. Builder, John Greentree.

            FREEBORN & SHELDON'S MILL, formerly Shaw's, is situated on the east side of Carson River, three quarters of a mile below Dayton. The entire establishment is on a large scale, the building being seventy-five feet square, and the machinery driven by a Turbine wheel five feet in diameter, and weighing five thousand pounds, the heaviest of the kind in the country. The machinery is from the Vulcan Foundry, San Francisco. The mill, when run to its full capacity, will operate forty-eight stamps, twenty-four now being in use. The Norton pan and process are employed for amalgamating. The owners purchase their rock, employ fifteen hands, and crush about thirty tons per day. The ditch and tail-race are three quarters of a mile long, and cost six thousand dollars. The entire cost of the work will be about forty thousand dollars. William Freeborn and Mark Sheldon, owners; J. S. Akin, superintendent.

            GAUTIER'S MILL, situated below Shaw's, on the same side of the river, is driven by water conducted through an expensive ditch nearly a mile long. It employs eight hands, and runs ten stamps, crushing fifteen tons of rock per day. Process is a new invention by Dr. Gautier, who superintends the mill. Owners, H. V. McCullough and L. P. Gautier.

            THE SUCCOR MILL, one and a half miles below Dayton, on the west bank of Carson River, is driven by a six foot central discharge water-wheel, which carries fifteen stamps, capable of crushing twenty tons of rock per day. The building is sixty feet square, and very substantial. The water is brought the distance of half a mile through a ditch thirty feet wide. The company crush rock from their own lead—the Succor—on Gold Cañon, half a mile above Devil's Gate ; employ twelve hands, and use Varney's pans for amalgamating. Mill superintended by J. B. Moore ; owned by George Stead, Benjamin Ober, J. R. H. Waller, J. H. Moore, Henry Durant, Mr. Hobart, and Elliot J. Moore.


            FROTHINGHAM & COMPANY'S MILL, on Carson River, four miles below Dayton, is driven by water ; runs three stamps and four arrastras, capable of crushing eight tons of rock per day. Owned by Peter Frothingham, D. W. Rice, L. A. Rice, and John Black. P. Frothingham, superintendent.

            Besides these mills now completed, there are several others within a few miles of Dayton, on which work has been commenced, with a number of mill-sites yet unimproved, but which will, no doubt, be brought into requisition within a year or two at farthest.