January 8, 2006

Nevada's Online State News Journal

 

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Modern History:

 

[From "Organized Crime: 25 Years After Valachi," Hearings Before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, 100th Congress, Second Session, US Government Printing Office, Washington: 1988]

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CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF LA COSA NOSTRA IN THE UNITED STATES

JANUARY 1920 - AUGUST 1987

 

CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE DIVISION.

 

ORGANIZED CRIME SECTION

Organized Crime Intelligence

and Analysis Unit

October 1987

 

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

            (1920 - 1929)  5

            (1930 - 1939)  8

            (1940 - 1949)  14

            (1950 - 1959)  17

            (1960 - 1969)  24

            (1970 - 1979)  32

            (1980 - 1987)  48

INDEX                        59

BIBLIOGRAPHY        67

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INTRODUCTION

            On October 15, 1890, David Hennessey, Superintendent of Police of New Orleans, was ambushed by assassins. In the aftermath of his assassination, a large number of immigrants from Italy and Sicily were indiscriminately arrested, some for no more reason than they did not speak English well. On November 20, of that year, indictments were returned against 19 prisoners. On February 16, 1891, a trial of some of the defendants began. The trial lasted until the middle of March and was covered extensively by the press. The jury went out on March 12, 1891. The following afternoon the jury declared itself deadlocked as to 3 defendants, and it found the others not guilty. Since additional charges were pending, those found not guilty, as well as the others, were remanded to the Parish Prison. On March 14, 1891, a mob marched to Orleans Parish Prison, where the warden, realizing the futility of resistance, released the 19 prisoners, so that they might have a chance to hide. This tactic saved the lives of 8 of them but the remaining 11 were shot or hanged or both. Of the 11 who were lynched, 3 had been acquitted, 3 had been declared subjects of a mistrial, and 5 had not been tried at all.

            The Hennessey killing and the subsequent murders created perhaps the first significant public awareness of the La Cosa Nostra (LCN). Newspapers nationwide reported the killings, and relations between Italy and the United States were strained for a time. The New Orleans grand jury investigating the incident reported that "our research has developed the existence of the secret organization styled 'Mafia'.... Officers of the Mafia and many of its members were not known. Among them are men born in this city of Italian origin.... The larger number of the society is composed of Italians and Sicilians...." (we know today that the LCN is strictly a North American phenomenon and distinctly different from its cousin organizations in Europe).

            Because of the rapidly changing face of the LCN in the United States, (changing from the rough characters of the early years to the sophisticated influential members of today) an easy reference guide was needed. This guide was deemed necessary in that it will assist all personnel assigned to the Organized Crime Program in developing a working background of the LCN.

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            A chronological history was the vehicle chosen. One can trace the LCN from its infancy in the United States, through the more notorious phases, to its present status. The period 1920 - 1987 was selected to demonstrate that the LCN has undergone significant changes. The changes can be traced to the stepped-up law enforcement effort, which included consolidation of Federal resources in the form of Regional Strike Forces, as well as extensive use of electronic surveillance and perhaps the most noteworthy, the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) Statute. An index has also been appended in order to provide a ready reference to specific names and places.

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1920 - 1929

January 16, 1920: The 18th Amendment to the Constitution became effective making Prohibition a national law. The following day, the Volstead (or Prohibition Enforcement) Act became affective. Although organized crime had existed in the United States prior to this time, it was the bonanza of Prohibition which enabled the small, but powerful, LCN to capitalize upon its international contacts, its reputation for ruthlessness, and--above all--its rigidly disciplined structure of cooperating gangs to establish the position of unrivaled eminence it holds in the American  underworld today.

May 11, 1920: James (Big Jim) Colosimo, Chicago Camorra head, was shot and killed in his restaurant. He was succeeded by Johnny Torrio.

February 6, 1921: Vito Guardalabene, boss of the Milwaukee LCN Family died of natural causes. He was succeeded by his son, Peter Guardalabene.

May 12, 1921: Anthony D'Andrea, boss of the Chicago LCN Family was shot to death during the early morning hours while returning from a card game. He was succeeded by Mike Merlo.

May 6, 1922: Pellegrino Scaglia, member of the Colorado LCN Family was shot to death, precipitating such a crisis in the Colorado and Kansas City Families that a "general assembly" of LCN leaders had to be called in New York to resolve the dispute.

July 9, 1922: Joseph Peter DiCarlo, boss of the Buffalo Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Stefano (Steve) Magaddino.

August 11, 1922: Umberto Valenti, alleged former "right arm" of New York City LCN boss Salvatore

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D'Aquila, was shot to death on the running board of an automobile after his friends had conducted an intensive campaign to get D'Aquila to cancel the "contract" he had issued for Valenti's murder.

November 8, 1924: Mike Mario, boss of the Chicago Family died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Antonio Lombardo.

November 10, 1924: Dion O'Banion, Chicago gang leader, was shot to death in his flower shop while preparing the floral arrangements for Mike Merlo's funeral. Since he had been head of one of the major independent mobs then competing with the LCN in the power struggle known as the Prohibition "beer wars," O'Banion's death marked an important milestone in the LCN's march to eventual domination of the American underworld. Indicative of the bloodiness of this struggle is the fact that more than 700 gangland slayings occurred in the Chicago area alone between 1920 and 1933, with 76 being recorded in the year 1926 and 72 in 1928.

January 24, 1925: Chicago Camorra head Johnny Torrio was shot and seriously wounded. He subsequently resigned his position and was succeeded by Alphonse (Scarface Al) Capone.

March 28, 1927: Joseph Amato, boss of the Milwaukee Family (having succeeded Peter Guardalabene in approximately 1924) died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Joseph Vallone.

October 13, 1927: Joseph Lonardo, boss of the Cleveland Family, was shot and killed--along with his brother John--in a local barbershop. He was succeeded by Salvatore Todaro.

July 1, 1928: New York City Mobster Frankie Yale (true name: Uale) was shot to death while taking a Sunday afternoon drive in Brooklyn, New York.

September 7, 1928: Antonio Lombardo, boss of the Chicago Family, was shot and killed on a downtown sidewalk. The importance of Lombardo's death is that it is said to have sealed the merger of the LCN and the Camorra in the Chicago area. Reportedly, Al Capone, head

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of the Chicago branch of the Camorra, was offered membership and a ranking position in the LCN if he would have Lombardo murdered.

October 10, 1928: Salvatore (Toto) D'Aquila, head of what is now the Carlo Gambino Family and allegedly "boss of all bosses," was shot and killed while standing beside his automobile in New York City. He was succeeded as Family head by Frank Scalise.

November 4, 1928: New York City gambling figure Arnold Rothstein was shot at Park Centre Hotel and died 2 days later.

December 5, 1928: More than 20 top LCN leaders were arrested in the early morning hours at a Cleveland hotel. Two, Joe Profaci and Joe Magliocco, were among those later in attendance at the1957 Apalachin, New York, meeting.

February 14, 1929: Six followers of George (Bugs) Moran and a visiting optometrist were murdered in a Chicago garage (reportedly by members of the Capone mob) in what has come to be known as the "St. Valentine's Day Massacre."

May 16, 1929: Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Family, was arrested by the Philadelphia Police on a charge of carrying concealed weapons shortly after leaving what he described as a 3-day "peace conference" of leading mobsters in an Atlantic City, New Jersey, hotel.

June 11, 1929:  Salvatore (Black Sam) Todaro, boss of the Cleveland Family, was shot to death while approaching a parked car. He was succeeded by Joe Porello.

August 6, 1929: Steve Monastero, boss of the Pittsburgh Family, was shot to death at the entrance to Allegheny General Hospital. He was succeeded by Joseph Siragusa.

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1930 - 1939

February 20, 1930: Carlo T. Piranio, leader of the old Dallas, Texas, Family died of natural causes. He was succeeded by his brother, Joseph T. Piranio.

February 26; 1930: Gaetano (Tommy) Reina, boss of what later became the Thomas Luchese Family, was shot and killed leaving a building in New York City. He was succeeded by Joseph Pinzolo. The murders of D'Aquila and Reina (allegedly by followers of Giuseppe Masseria) are said to have been 2 of the main causes of the bloody Castellammarese gangland war that raged throughout much of 1930 and 1931.

May 31, 1930: Gaspare Milazzo, boss of the Detroit Family was shot to death in a fish market. His successor is not known.

July 5, 1930: Joe Porello, boss of the Cleveland Family, was shot to death--along with his bodyguard--in Frank Milano's restaurant. He was succeeded by Milano.

September 5, 1930: Joseph Pinzolo, boss of the former Reina Family in New York City, was shot to death in a Manhattan office building. He was succeeded by Thomas Gagliano and, later, by Thomas Luchese. Luchese was arrested for Pinzolo's murder, but the grand jury failed to indict him.

October 23, 1930: Joseph Aiello, former underboss of the Chicago Family, was shot and killed leaving a friend's apartment house.

November 5, 1930: Stephen Ferrigno and Manfredi Mineo, top aides to Giuseppe Masseria, were shot to death in New York City by followers of rival gang leader Salvatore Maranzano.

April 15, 1931: Giuseppe Masseria, "boss of all bosses" was shot to death in a Coney Island, New York, restaurant. He was succeeded as Family head by Salvatore "Lucky" Lucania and as "boss of all bosses" by Salvatore Maranzano. After Masseria's murder, there were significant changes in the LCN's structure. Individual groups became known as families

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and the fathers became "bosses." Regional designations were dropped, and the families took the names of their original leaders. More important were organizational shakeups during 1931. Luciana took over the Masseria (Napolitana) Family, with Frank Costello as underboss; Vito Genovese was a trusted associate, and later became the boss and the organization was known as the Genovese Family. Joseph Profaci retained control of the Villabate group that now bore his name and later became the Joseph Colombo Family. Philip Mangano assumed control of the Mineo (Palermitana) Family, which later became the Carlo Gambino Family. Gaetano Gagliano became boss of the Reina (Siciliani) Family, later identified as the Thomas Luchese Family. Joseph Bonanno became underboss in the Maranzano (Castellemmare) Family which eventually bore his name.

September 10, 1931: Salvatore Maranzano, successor to Masseria, was shot and stabbed to death in his Manhattan office building by 4 members of Meyer Lansky's Jewish mob posing as police officers. This assistance rendered to one of the warring factions in the Castellammarese war consolidated Lansky's alliance with the victorious segment and accounts for much of the respect he enjoyed in the underworld. A second, and still more important result of Maranzano's death was the abolition of the old title "boss of all bosses" and the establishment of the "Commission" system to assign territories, adjudicate disputes, and exercise internal discipline. Members included: Salvatore Lucania (known variously throughout the underworld as "Charley Lucky" and "Lucky Luciano"); Joe Profaci; Thomas Gagliano: Joseph Bonanno; Vincent Mangano (who had deposed Frank Scalise as head of the old D'Aquila Family); Frank Milano, of Cleveland; and Al Capone, of Chicago.

September 13, 1931: Joseph Siragusa, boss of the Pittsburgh Family, was shot to death in his home. He was succeeded by John Bazzano.

October 15, 1931: Joe Ardizonne, boss of the Los Angeles Family, disappeared and is presumed to have been murdered. He was succeeded by Jack Dragna. Following the death of

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Salvatore Maranzano, a wave of gangland slayings, known as the "Sicilian Vespers," swept the country, allegedly including both Ardizonne and the previously mentioned Siragusa.

October 17, 1931: Al Capone, boss of the Chicago Family, was convicted on Federal charges of income tax evasion. He was fined $50,000 and sentenced to 11 years in prison.

December 18, 1931: Jack (Legs) Diamond, New York City hoodlum, was shot to death in an Albany, New York, boardinghouse after reportedly refusing to take sides in the Castellammarese gangland war. His murder is said to have been committed by an unidentified member of the Vito Genovese faction.

February 8, 1932: Vincent (Mad Dog) Coll, New York City hoodlum, was shot to death in a Manhattan telephone booth, reportedly at the instructions of LCN boss Salvatore Lucania.

July 29, 1932:   John, Arthur and James Volpe--notorious underworld figures and bootleggers--were shot to death in a Pittsburgh coffee shop, allegedly at the orders of John Bazzano, boss of the Pittsburgh Family.

August 8, 1932: The body of John Bazzano, boss of the Pittsburgh Family, was found in the middle of a Brooklyn, New York, street—strangled and stabbed to death and sewn into a burlap sack. Bazzano was reportedly murdered when, called to New York City to explain the slayings of the 3 Volpe brothers, he replied that what he did in Pittsburgh vas no concern to anyone else in the organization. Bazzano was succeeded by Vincenzo Capizzi as head of the family.

June 17, 1933:  FBI Agent Raymond J. Caffrey, 3 police officers, and hoodlum Frank Nash were killed in the Union Station parking lot during the infamous "Kansas City Massacre." Reportedly the Kansas City LCN Family declined a request that it participate in the operation. One of the gunmen (Vernon C. Miller, an associate of New York City mobster Louis Lepke Buchalter) was found murdered in Detroit on November 29, 1933, allegedly killed by followers of New Jersey gang leader Abner Zwillman.

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December 5, 1933: The 21st Amendment to the Constitution became law, repealing Prohibition. The resulting end of their bonanza caught mob leaders with large hordes of wealth, vast fleets of trucks, and whole armies of trained gunmen at their disposal. Most branched out into other fields of criminal endeavor (such as gambling, loan shaking, narcotics, labor racketeering, etc.), whereas quite a few added to their flow of illicit wealth by investing their funds in a succession of legitimate investments, ranging from real estate and manufacturing plants to hospitals and theatrical agencies. It was also at this time that many racket leaders tried to play down their past histories and adopt an air of pseudorespectability in their local communities.

January 1, 1934: Fiorello H. LaGuardia was sworn in as Mayor of New York City and immediately declared war on organized crime. Between February and May, more than 2,000 slot machines controlled by LCN member Frank Costello and his partner, "Dandy Phil" Kastel, were seized by local police, with LaGuardia serving as a committing magistrate. Costello and Kastel decided to move the center of their slot machine operations and, in August, 1935, founded the Bayou Novelty Company in New Orleans.

July 10, 1934:   John Lazia, boss of the Kansas City Family, was fatally shot in front of his residence during the early morning hours. He died later that afternoon and was succeeded by Charles V. Carrollo.

September 19, 1934: Ferdinand (The Shadow) Boccia was shot to death in Brooklyn, New York. Subsequently developed as a prime suspect in the slaying, Vito Genovese fled to Italy and did not return until after World War II.

January 30, 1935: Frank Milano, former boss of the Cleveland Family, entered Mexico. He was granted a permanent immigration visa on April 13, 1942. He was succeeded as boss by Alfred (Big Al) Polizzi.

August 22, 1935: Vincenzo Troia, formerly a close associate of "boss of all bosses" Salvatore Maranzano and himself a nominee for the position

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following the death of Giuseppe Masseria in 1931, was shot to death for allegedly plotting to seize control of the Newark, New Jersey, Family.

October 23, 1935: Arthur (Dutch Schultz) Flegenheimer, a participant in the Castellammarese gangland war of the early 1930s, was fatally shot in a Newark restaurant after an "open contract" had been issued by LCN officials for his murder. He died the following evening.

February 15, 1936: Vincent Gebardi, better known as "Machine Gun" Jack McGurn, was shot to death at a Chicago bowling alley.

May 19, 1936: Mrs. Nicholas Longo, sister and next-door neighbor of Buffalo Commission member Steve Magaddino, was killed by an early morning bomb blast believed intended for her brother.

June 7, 1936: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) and 8 associates were convicted on 62 counts each of compulsory prostitution charges. Luciano was sentenced to a prison term of 30-50 years'. Succeeded by Frank Costello, Luciano served more than 9 years' before New York Governor Thomas Dewey recommended clemency. He noted that Luciano had cooperated with the Armed Forces during World War II when the Navy, fearing sabotage, had asked his help in gathering intelligence and controlling the docks. Luciano was paroled and immediately deported.

August 17, 1936: "Big Nose" John Avena (also known as John Nazzone), boss of the Philadelphia Family, was shot to death while talking to a friend on a Philadelphia street corner. He was succeeded by Joseph Bruno.

January 8, 1937: The Cuban Cabinet approved plans to place certain gambling operations under control of the army, headed by Colonel (later President) Fulgencio Batista. Shortly thereafter, New York City gambling czar Meyer Lansky led a vanguard of American hoodlums imported to help operate the major Cuban casinos. Although World War II and Batista's removal from office during the latter part of the 1940s drove Lansky to seek greener pastures (such as those

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beginning to blossom in the Nevada desert), Batista returned to power in March, 1952, and soon asked Lansky to come back and "add a touch of class" to the Cuban operations.

February 22, 1937: Gaspare D'Amico, boss of the Newark Family, was shot and seriously wounded reportedly at the instructions of Commission member Joseph Profaci. Upon his recovery, D'Amico is said to have fled the country, and it is probably at this time that the Commission voted to dissolve the Newark Family and parcel out its operations to the various New York City Families, including the one headed by Profaci.

June 14, 1937:  Francesco Lanza, boss of the San Francisco Family and father of the future boss, James Joseph Lanza, died in San Francisco of natural causes. He was succeeded by Anthony J. Lima.

October 5, 1937: Nicolo Gentile, formerly a high-ranking member of families in Kansas City, Pittsburgh, and New York City, was arrested at New Orleans in a nationwide narcotics raid involving more than 80 subjects. Gentile later jumped bond and fled back to Sicily to avoid standing trial.

May 2, 1938: Detroit gang leader Joe Tocco was fatally shot in the back and died the following day. Reportedly, his death was one of the major factors leading to the ultimate consolidation of power in the Detroit area by LCN Commission member Joe Zerilli.

August 24, 1939: New York City hoodlum Louis Lepke Buchalter, after 25 months as a fugitive on Federal Antitrust charges, surrendered to FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover in New York City. Buchalter was subsequently turned over to local authorities and executed for murder.

October 20, 1939: Charles V. Carrollo, boss of the Kansas City Family, was incarcerated in the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kansas, for violating Federal tax laws. Reportedly, he was succeeded by Charles Binaggio.

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November 16, 1939: Al Capone vas released from Federal custody and committed to a hospital for treatment of paresis.

1940 - 1949

November 12, 1941: Abe Reles, a prime witness in the local investigation of "Murder, Incorporated," fell to his death during the early morning hours from his guarded hotel room in Coney Island, New York. The grand jury returned a verdict of accidental death.

December 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor Day. While temporarily interrupting American gambling operations in Cuba and forcing certain hoodlums into military service, World War II also opened up new areas of illicit profits through black-marketeering and the theft and counterfeiting of Government ration stamps.

December 5, 1942: Vincenzo Capizzi, former boss of the Pittsburgh Family, vas arrested by FBI Agents for conspiring to violate the National Bankruptcy Act. He had been succeeded, supposedly in 1937, by Sebastian John LaRocca.

January 11, 1943: Carlo Tresca, editor of the Italian-language newspaper Il Martello was shot to death on a Manhattan street corner. The prime suspect was identified as Carmine Galante, later named capodecina (or Captain) in the Joseph Bonanno Family. When the New York City police assigned 1,000 officers to the investigation, Bonanno moved to Tucson, Arizona.

February 2, 1943: Estelle Carey, Chicago's "Queen of the Dice Girls" vas brutally murdered and burned, possibly because of her involvement in the movie extortion ring then being investigated by the FBI.

March 18, 1943: As the result of an extensive FBI investigation, sealed indictments were returned against Frank Nitti, Paul DeLucia, (also known as Paul "The Waiter" Ricca), Louis Campagna, John Roselli, and 5 other individuals for extorting more than

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$1,000,000 from the major producers and exhibitors in the American film industry. The indictments were opened the following day.

March 19, 1943: On the day his Federal indictment was announced, Frank Nitti shot himself to death alongside a railroad track in Riverside, Illinois, after reportedly threatening a nearby train crew.

December 22, 1943: DeLucia, Campagna, Roselli, and 4 other defendants were convicted in the film-industry extortion case. All were fined $10,000 apiece, and the sentences ranged from 7 to 10 years'. With the death of Nitti in 1943, and the departure of Delucia and Campagna for prison in 1944, Anthony Accardo was named boss of the Chicago Family.

July 25, 1944: Corrado Giacona, boss of the New Orleans Family for approximately 20 years, died. He was succeeded by Frank Todaro.

August 7, 1944: Vito Genovese, indicted for the 1934 murder of Ferdinand Boccia, was arrested by American authorities in Italy. He arrived in the United States June 1, 1945, to stand trial, but the main witness against him died of an "overdose of sedative" while in protective custody and, on June 10, 1946, Genovese's trial ended with a directed verdict of acquittal.

October 19, 1944: Alfred Polizzi, boss of the Cleveland Family, pleaded guilty to charges of failing to pay Federal liquor taxes and, after his release from prison in 1945, moved to Coral Gables, Florida. He was succeeded by John Scalish.

November 29, 1944: Frank Todaro, boss of the New Orleans Family, died. He was succeeded by Sylvestro (Sam) Carollo.

February 1, 1946: Former Commission member Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) deported to Italy.

June 24, 1946:  Race-wire operator James M. Ragen was shot from a truck while driving in rush-hour traffic on a Chicago street. Reportedly attacked for refusing to sell out to the hoodlum element, he died of his wounds on August 14, 1946.

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October 22, 1946: Joseph Bruno, boss of the Philadelphia Family, died in a Mew York City hospital. He was succeeded by Joe Ida.

December 26, 1946: The formal opening of the Flamingo Hotel Casino in Las Vegas--backed by such hoodlum figures as Benjamin (Bugsy) Siegel, Meyer Lanky, Frank Costello, and Joe Adonis-- marked the infiltration of Nevada gambling by the organized criminal element. The formal opening of the hotel itself took place on March 1, 1947.

January 25, 1947: Former gangland czar Al Capone died of natural causes in his Miami Beach, Florida, home.

February 22, 1947: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano) was arrested by Cuban authorities after the United States discovered that he had been living on the island since October, 1946. (While in Havana, Lucania placed calls to all the top crime figures in the United States. Commission members Genovese, Costello, Anastasia, Accardo, Marcello-- even Lanky--who was not a member of the LCN, came to Havana. Many believe the occasion was to pass his power to Vito Genovese.) He was deported back to Italy on March 20, 1947.

April 30, 1947: Sylvestro (Sam) Carollo, boss of the New Orleans Family, deported. He was succeeded by Carlos Marcello. (His true name was Calogero Minacore, which was subsequently changed to Marcella and later masculinized to Marcello.)

May 7, 1947: Nick DeJohn, former capodecina in the Chicago Family, was strangled and his body stuffed into the trunk of a car parked on a San Francisco street. DeJohn had reportedly fled Chicago after murdering several other LCN members and was living in Santa Rosa, California, under an alias at the time of his death.

June 20, 1947:  Benjamin (Bugsy) Siegel was shot to death through a living-room window while sitting in the Beverly Hills mansion of his paramour, Virginia Hill.

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1950 - 1959

February 28, 1950: Abraham Davidian was shot to death in Fresno, California, while waiting to testify in a major West Coast narcotics trial.

April 6, 1950: Charles Binaggio, boss of the Kansas City Family, was found shot to death, along with his bodyguard, Charles Gargotta. He was succeeded by Anthony Gizzo.

May 26, 1950: The Senate Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce (popularly known as the Kefauver Committee, even though Senator Estes Kefauver resigned his chairmanship on May 1, 1951) opened hearings in Miami, Florida. Subsequent hearings were held in various cities throughout the country until August 17, 1951.

June 5, 1950: James Lumia, boss of the Tampa Family, was shotgunned to death on a street corner. He was succeeded by Santo Trafficante, Sr.

February 16, 1951: Thomas Gagliano, LCN Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Thomas Luchese.

April 16, 1951: Sam Maceo, former underboss of the Texas Family, died of natural causes in a Baltimore, Maryland, hospital.

April 19, 1951: Philip Mangano, brother of Commission member Vincent Mangano, was found shot to death in a marshy section of Brooklyn, New York. Vincent disappeared at about the same time and has not been seen since. He was succeeded by Albert Anastasia as head of what was later to become the Carlo Gambino Family.

August 6, 1951: The "two Tonys," Broncato and Trombino, were shot to death in Los Angeles, reportedly for committing a robbery in a hoodlum-controlled Nevada hotel.

October 4, 1951: Willie Moretti, LCN gambling czar, was shot to death in a Cliffside Park, New Jersey, restaurant. He is said to have been killed because he had become mentally ill and had been talking too much.

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October 20, 1951: The Revenue Act of 1951 signed into law, to become effective November 1 establishing wagering excise and occupational taxes. The immediate effect of the new statute, which was later declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1968, was to drive many leading bookmakers teams to move their bases of operation out of the country for several years.

November 20, 1951: New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey ordered the New York State Crime Commission to conduct an investigation of the Port of New York. In 1953, the Commission issued a report charging that corruption was widespread in the waterfront and the International Longshoremen's Association (ILA) had flagrantly disregarded the rights of dockworkers.

March 18, 1952: Joseph Vallone, former boss of the Milwaukee Family, died. He had been succeeded upon his retirement in approximately 1949 by Sam Ferrara. Ferrara's rule lasted until November or December, 1952, when he was deposed by the Chicago Family, at the request of the Milwaukee membership, and was replaced by John Alioto.

April 27, 1952: More than 80 hoodlum figures from various areas attended a party in Johnston, Rhode Island, allegedly to celebrate Raymond Patriarca's appointment to head the New England Family upon the retirement of Philip Buccola, who had returned to Italy.

April 1, 1953: Anthony (Tony) Gizzo, boss of the Kansas City Family, died of natural causes in Dallas, Texas. He was succeeded by Nicholas Civella.

April 27, 1953: Anthony J. Lima, boss of the San Francisco Family, committed to California State Prison for grand theft. He was succeeded by Mike Abati.

June 11, 1953:  Illinois State Representative Clem Graver was kidnaped after incurring the displeasure of future Commission member Sam Giancana and has not been seen since.

September 23, 1953: George Meany, President of the American Federation of Labor (AFL), expelled the Longshoremen's Union from the AFL. He

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called the ILA "the tools of the New York Waterfront mob." Meany also noted that the gangster element had "exploited longshoremen on the New York docks for years.

January 7, 1954: Charles V. Carrollo, former boss of the Kansas City Family, deported and last known to be residing in Palermo, Sicily.

May 13, 1954; Frank Costello, (true name Francesco Castiglia) LCN Commission member from New York City, was convicted in the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York (SDNY), for violating Federal income tax laws. He was fined $30,000 mid sentenced to 5 years'. On March 11, 1957, he was released from prison on bail pursuant to a Supreme Court order. Returned to custody October 21, 1958, when the Supreme Court denied his appeal, he was finally released June 20, 1961, on "good behavior."

August 11, 1954: Santo Trafficante, Sr., boss of the Tampa Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by his son, Santo Jr.

May 16, 1955: Frank Bompensiero, head of LCN operations in the San Diego area, was committed to California State Prison on local bribery charges. He was succeeded by Antonio Mirabile.

May 30, 1955: Louis (Little New York) Campagna, former Chicago gang leader, died of natural causes while on a Florida fishing trip.

June 4, 1955: Carmella Profaci, daughter of Joseph Profaci, boss of the Profaci Family, married Anthony Tocco, son of William Tocco, LCN leader in Detroit. Joseph Zerilli, boss of the Detroit Family, and his brother-in-law William Tocco formed an alliance with Joseph Profaci following World War II. It was cemented by the above marriage and the marriage of another Profaci daughter to Anthony Zerilli, Joseph's son.

November 4, 1955: Willie Bioff, one of the Government's main witnesses in the 1943 film-industry extortion case, was killed when a bomb exploded in a truck at his Phoenix, Arizona, home.

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January 3, 1956: Joseph (Joe Adonis) Doto, a major Brooklyn rackets figure, voluntarily left the United States to avoid deportation proceedings and to avoid serving a Federal perjury sentence.

February 23, 1956: Jack Dragna, boss of the Los Angeles Family, was found dead in a motel room reportedly of natural causes. He was succeeded by attorney Frank Desimone.

April 5, 1956: Victor Riesel, a nationally known labor columnist, was blinded in an acid attack while leaving a New York City restaurant. LCN member John Dioguardi was indicted but never tried.

June 18, 1956: Girolomo (Momo) Adamo, underboss of the Los Angeles Family, committed suicide in San Diego after seriously wounding his wife over an affair she allegedly was having with the then head of the Family, Frank Desimone.

July 18, 1956:   The Narcotics Control Act of 1956 was signed into law, drastically increasing penalties for engaging in the illicit-drug trade.

October 17, 1956: The first of 3 meetings to discuss post-World War II domination of the U.S. heroin market by the LCN was held in Binghamton, New York. These high-level LCN meetings established Sicily as a major base in United States drug trade. Cuba, a major distributor in the smuggling of narcotics into the United States, had fallen into political turmoil. A new base was needed, and the 3 meetings of LCN chieftains were held primarily to establish such a base. LCN and Mafia leaders decided to formulate a common strategy. The second meeting took place between October 12-16, 1957, at the Hotel Delle Palme, Palermo, Sicily. The third meeting took place at the Apalachin mountain estate of mob boss Joseph M. Barbara on November 14, 1957.

October 27, 1956: Joseph T. Piranio, boss of the Dallas, Texas, Family, shot himself to death after a brief illness. He was succeeded by Joseph Civello.

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February 25, 1957: George (Bugs) Moran, former prohibition rival of Al Capone, died of natural causes in the United States Penitentiary at Leavenworth while serving a 10-year sentence for bank robbery.

February 26, 1957: The Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field (popularly known as the "Senate Rackets Committee" and chaired by Senator John L. McClellan) opened hearings in Washington, D.C. Subsequent hearings lasted until December 3, 1958, and included an intensive probe into the hoodlum meeting held at Apalachin, New York.

May 2, 1957: Commission member Frank Costello received a minor head wound when he was shot entering his New York City apartment building. He reportedly stepped aside shortly thereafter and relinquished his Commission post to Vito Genovese, whose chauffeur and bodyguard, Vincent Gigante, had been the leading suspect in the shooting.

May 14, 1957: Philip (Big Phil) Amari, boss of the Elizabeth, New Jersey, Family, left the United States for an extended residence in Italy. He was succeeded by Nicholas Delmore.

June 17, 1957:  Frank Scalise, former gang leader and top adviser to Commission member Albert Anastasia, was shot and killed in a New York City grocery store. At the time of his death, Scalise had reportedly been selling LCN memberships for as much as $40,000-$50,000 each, a practice that resulted in a lucrative side income and frightened rival mobs by causing the Anastasia Family to dwarf all the others in size.

September 7, 1957: Joe Scalise, brother of the murdered Frank Scalise, was reported by his relatives as a "missing person." According to underworld sources, he was killed and cut up into small pieces by LCN hoodlums acting under the direction of Vincent Squillante.

October 25, 1957: Albert Anastasia, LCN Commission member, and 2 bodyguards walked into the barbershop of the Park-Sheraton Hotel in Manhattan.

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Anastasia sat down, loosened his tie, and closed his eyes as the barber covered his face with a hot towel. The bodyguards slipped away. Two other men walked in from the hotel lobby, strode up to Anastasia, and literally blasted him out of the chair. The high executioner of Murder, Inc. had himself been executed. Anastasia's murder was ordered by Vito Genovese as part of the latter's plan to eliminate his more powerful rivals, dispense with the "Commission," and claim the long-since discarded title "boss of all bosses."

November 10, 1957: A national meeting of LCN leaders--reportedly larger than that held later in Apalachin, New York--convened at the Livingston, New Jersey, estate of Ruggiero Boiardo, a captain in the Vito Genovese Family. Lasting from approximately noon until 5 the following morning, the meeting is said to have covered such topics as Albert Anastasia's recent murder, the selection of Carlo Gambino as his successor, and the closing of the organization's membership "books" to further recruiting (an edict that lasted until 1972). Upon adjournment, the members present agreed to hold another session later in the week at the 58-acre Apalachin estate of Joseph M. Barbara, head of the Family centered in the Pittston, Pennsylvania-Binghamton, New York, area.

November 14, 1957: The second session of the above meeting convened on November 13, 1957, at Apalachin, New York, on the estate of Joseph Barbara, Sr., for a continuation of the discussions regarding Anastasia, Gambino, and the ban on the recruiting of new members. Scheduled to last through November 15, the meeting broke up early in the afternoon of the 14th when detected by New York State Police. Although some 60 leading racket figures were detained and interrogated while trying to flee the premises, another 40 or 50 reportedly succeeded in making good their escape.

May 22, 1958: Tony Musso, boss of the Rockford, Illinois, Family, died. He was succeeded temporarily by Jasper Calo and then later by Joseph Zammuto.

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December 3, 1958: Gus Greenbaum, Las Vegas casino operator, and his wife were found murdered in their Phoenix, Arizona, home.

December 27, 1958: Antonio Mirabile, head of LCN operations in the San Diego area, was murdered during an attempt to rob him. He was succeeded by Joe Adamo, brother of the late underboss Momo Adamo.

In 1959: The FBI in Chicago had installed the first in a series of electronic devices that would reveal so much about the underworld in years to come.

January 1, 1959: The Cuban Government under President Fulgencio Batista collapsed, resulting in widespread riots and the burning of homes, stores, and gambling casinos. With the advent of Fidel Castro's rise to power, the foreign casino owners (including some of the top names in the American underworld) were forced to abandon their gambling operations in Cuba.

January 15, 1959: Joseph Ida, LCN Commission member from Philadelphia, left the United States to return to Italy. He renounced his citizenship on April 21, 1960, and was eventually succeeded--after considerable bickering and fighting—by Angelo Bruno.

February 26, 1959: Abner (Longie) Zwillman, New Jersey rackets figure, was found hanged in the basement of his mansion. Officially ruled a suicide, Zwillman's death came less than 2 weeks after 3 of his associates had been arrested by FBI Agents and charged with bribing jurors in Zwillman's income tax trial, which had ended in a hung jury on March 1, 1956.

April 11, 1959: Vito Genovese, Commission member from New York City, was convicted of violating Federal narcotics laws. He was sentenced to 15 years' on April 17, 1959, and remanded to custody in February, 1960, when his appeal was denied.

June 17, 1959:  Joseph M. Barbara, Sr., boss of the LCN Family centered in the Pittston, Pennsylvania-Binghamton, New York, area and host for the notorious meeting of hoodlum leaders at Apalachin, died of natural

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causes. He was succeeded by Russell A. Bufalino.

September 10, 1959: Onofrio Sciortino, boss of the San Jose, California, Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Joe Cerrito.

September 25, 1959: Anthony Carfano (also known as "Little Augie Pisano"), LCN mobster, was shot to death in his car after leaving a New York City night club. Also killed with Carfano was former "Miss America" contestant Janice Drake.

December 16, 1959: Roger (The Terrible) Touhy, former Chicago gangland figure and Capone rival, was fatally shot less than a month after his parole from prison.

1960 - 1969

September 23, 1960: Vincent Squillante, a "capodecina" in the Carlo Gambino Family, was last seen driving a 1960 Chevrolet. Although Squillante is said to have been murdered for personal misconduct, neither he nor the car were ever found.

January 1, 1961: The general gambling provisions of the Betting and Gaming Act of 1960 became effective, legalizing casino operations in Great Britain and attracting certain ranking hoodlum figures from the United States. The off-track wagering provisions of the statute became effective May 1, 1961.

February 27, 1961: The Gallo-Profaci gangland war in New York City was launched with the kidnaping of a group of Commission member Joe Profaci's top aides by a faction of hoodlums loyal to Joe and Larry Gallo. Before the shooting stopped in August, 1963, at least 9 persons were killed; 15 were wounded, beaten or otherwise injured; 3 were reported missing and presumed to be dead; and 9 were fired at but missed.

April 4, 1961: Carlos Marcello, boss of the New Orleans Family, was deported to Guatemala.  Returning to the United States without permission, he surrendered to immigration

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authorities in June, 1961. Subsequent deportation proceedings have been thwarted by the refusal of other countries to accept him.

July 8, 1961: Mike Abati, boss of the San Francisco Family, was deported to Italy, where he died on September 5, 1962. He was succeeded by James Lanza.

September 13, 1961: The Interstate Transportation in Aid to Racketeering (ITAR), Interstate Transportation and Wagering of Information (ITWI) and The Interstate Transportation of Wagering Paraphernalia (ITWP) Statutes were signed into law giving the FBI its major jurisdiction in the bookmaking and numbers-lottery areas.

October 20, 1961: John A. Kilpatrick, International President of the United Industrial Workers of America, was found shot to death in his car parked in a Chicago alley. An FBI investigation led to the conviction in local court of Detroit hoodlum William G. Triplett and his uncle Dana Horton Nash.

December 27, 1961: Frank Peter Balistrieri was reportedly "formalized" as the new head of the Milwaukee Family at a civic testimonial dinner for Dr. Vito Guardalabene, son and grandson of 2 former LCN officials. Balistrieri succeeded his father-in-law John Alioto, who had served as boss since November or December, 1952.

January 26, 1962: Salvatore Lucania (Lucky Luciano), former Commission member, died in Italy, apparently of natural causes.

April 8, 1962:   Anthony (Tony Bender) Strollo, a captain in the Vito Genovese Family and a close personal friend of Genovese, vanished during the late evening hours and was never seen again. Reportedly Strollo's death had been ordered by Genovese from his Atlanta prison cell because Strollo had been dealing in narcotics against Genovese's orders and was believed to be thereby jeopardizing Genovese's chances of obtaining parole.

May 18, 1962  Jimmy Hoffa was indicted under the Taft-Hartley Act in Nashville, Tennessee, for

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receiving $1,000,000 in illegal payments through a trucking company, the Test Fleet Corporation, which had been set up in his wife's name.

June 6, 1962: Joseph Profaci, Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded temporarily by his brother-in-law and top aide, Joseph Magliocco.

June 13, 1962; Simone Scozzari, underboss of the Los Angeles Family, was deported to Italy. He was succeeded by Nicolo Licata.

June 22, 1962; Joseph Valachi, then a prisoner in the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta, seized a 2-foot length of iron pipe, rushed fellow inmate John Saupp, and beat him to death. Valachi believed that the man he had killed was Joseph DiPalermo, who had been, Valachi thought, ordered by Vito Genovese, then in prison with Valachi, to kill him. The murder precipitated Valachi's break with the LCN and the chain of events that led to his public testimony on the structure of organized crime in America.

July 3, 1962: FBI Agents seized more than $2,000,000 in cash, some $13,000 in stocks and bonds, and 3 guns hidden in a Jersey City, New Jersey, garage of gambling figure Joseph Vincent (Newsboy) Moriarity. Although Moriarity-- then incarcerated in New Jersey State Prison on local gambling charges--originally refused to discuss the ownership of the funds, he subsequently filed a tax form listing them as income derived from miscellaneous sources.

August 16, 1962: "Dandy Phil" Kastel, former underworld gambling czar and associate of LCN Commission member Frank Costello, committed suicide in New Orleans, reportedly because of ill health.

September 8, 1962: Joseph Valachi, while being questioned by the FBI, first acknowledged "La Cosa Nostra" as the name used by members of his organization.

November 23, 1962:    Charles (Cadillac Charley) Cavallaro--a Youngstown, Ohio, gambling figure--and his 11-year-old son were killed by a bomb wired to the ignition of their automobile. This

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marked the 82nd bombing in the Youngstown area during a 10-year period.

January 7, 1963: Juke-box operator Anthony J. Biernat was kidnaped from the parking lot of the Kenosha, Wisconsin, railroad station. His lime-covered body was located on January 28, 1963, by an FBI Agent and local officers on an abandoned Air Force base about 20 miles away.

July 17, 1963: LCN commission member Joe Bonanno reportedly flew from New York City to Arizona, took his wife and car, and drove to the West Coast under an assumed name--all less than 2 weeks before he and Joe Magliocco (acting boss of the Profaci Family) were scheduled to appear before the Commission on charges of having plotted to kill 3 of the organization's top leaders. Bonanno was not seen again publicly until May, 1964, when he appeared in Canada and applied for permanent residence.

            Magliocco, in the meantime, allegedly admitted his guilt and was deposed as "acting boss."

September 24, 1963: Philip (Big Phil) Amari, former boss of the Elizabeth, New Jersey, Family, died of natural causes in Arcadia, California.

September 25, 1963: The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (popularly known as the McClellan Committee) opened hearings in Washington, D.C., regarding "Organized Crime and Illicit Traffic in Narcotics." Featuring the testimony of LCN member Joe Valachi, the hearings lasted periodically until August 5, 1964.

November 22, 1963: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. After the President's assassination, the steam went out of the organized crime program. Prior to his death, for the first time in history, on a sustained, comprehensive basis, the syndicate was feeling the pressure, not just the public exposure of a congressional investigation, but prosecution for serious crimes. The committee was able to identify from Federal and local intelligence reports the organized crime families that dominated various areas and various illicit activities, including the identity of their

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bosses, underbosses, consiglieri, caporogime, and their members. With the President's death, the pressure was off the syndicate.

December 28, 1963: Joseph Magliocco, deposed acting boss of the late Joe Profaci's LCN Family in New York City, died apparently of natural causes.

January 23, 1964: The Lucayan Beach Hotel Casino (christened the Monte Carlo) opened on Grand Bahama Island, less than 100 miles off the Florida Coast. The first of various Bahamian casinos licensed to date, the Monte Carlo reportedly received hidden financial backing from a number of American hoodlums formerly associated with the Cuban gambling industry.

February 2, 1964: Nicholas Delmore, boss of the Elizabeth, New Jersey, Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by his nephew, Samuel Rizzo DeCavalcante.

March 15, 1964: William J. Sheridan was shot and killed in Roxbury, Massachusetts, by waterfront hoodlum George Mclaughlin (later arrested as a "Top Ten" fugitive and sentenced to death), thereby touching off a string of more than 60 gangland slayings in the Boston area during the next 5 years.

April 5, 1964:   The Gallo-Profaci war officially closed with the formal installation of Joseph Colombo as boss of the old Profaci Family. Reportedly, LCN officers from as far away as Detroit attended the ceremonies in New York City.

June 11, 1964: Retired Teamsters official Floyd R. Hayes was shot to death in Kansas City, Missouri, after testifying as a Government witness in a perjury case involving payoffs to some of his former associates.

July 30, 1964:   Commission member Joe Bonanno was deported from Canada to Chicago, Illinois, by airplane.

September 19, 1964: Samuel Rizzo DeCavalcante, head of the Elizabeth, New Jersey Family, met with Joe Bonanno and attempted to persuade him to appear before a meeting of the

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Commission on the earlier charges that he had planned to murder 2 or 3 of his fellow Commission members. When Bonanno refused, a special meeting of the Commission was called and he was expelled. As a result, the Bonanno LCN Family split into various warring factions, a number of gangland shootings took place, and an unsuccessful attempt was made on the life of Bonanno's son, Salvatore, in January, 1966, to try to keep him from succeeding his father.

October 21, 1964: Joe Bonanno, former Commission member from New York City and Tucson, Arizona, allegedly was kidnaped during the early morning hours from a Manhattan street corner and was not seen again publicly until 1966.

April 24, 1965: Owen Victor (Owney) Madden, former New York City rackets boss, died in Hot Springs, Arkansas, of natural causes.

June 1, 1965: Sam Giancana, Commission member from Chicago, was incarcerated for contempt after refusing to testify under an offer of immunity before a Federal grand jury probing organized crime in the Chicago area. Released on May 31, 1966, he subsequently fled to Latin America, where he stayed until expelled by Mexican authorities on July 19, 1974.

November 23, 1965: Murray (The Camel) Humphrey, a leading Chicago rackets figure, died of natural causes several hours after having been arrested by FBI Agents for perjuring himself before a Federal grand jury.

January 6, 1966: Salvatore Palma, a Kansas City hoodlum under indictment for having violated the Interstate Transportation of Stolen Property Statute (ITSP), was found shot to death in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Raytown, Missouri.

January 28, 1966: A major gun battle was waged on a Brooklyn street at 10:45 p.m. involving an attempt by 4 or 5 gunmen on the life of Salvatore (Bill) Bonanno, son of deposed Commission member Joe Bonanno.

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May 17, 1966: Joe Bonanno surrendered in Federal court at New York City after having allegedly been kidnaped on October 21, 1964, the day he had been scheduled to testify before a Federal grand jury sitting in the SDNY. He was immediately arraigned on a 1-count indictment charging him with Obstruction of Justice (OOJ) inasmuch as he had failed to appear on the day ordered.

September 22, 1966; New York City authorities arrested 13 major LCN leaders at a "Little Apalachin" gathering in the La Stella Restaurant, Queens, New York. Among those taken into custody were Commission members Carlo Gambino and Joe Colombo; Thomas Eboli, acting boss of the Vito Genovese Family; and Santo Trafficante, Jr., boss of the Tampa Family.

March 23, 1967: Frank Balistrieri, boss of the Milwaukee Family, was convicted of violating the Federal income tax laws.

May 9, 1967: Sam Battaglia, acting boss of the Chicago Family, was convicted of violating the Anti-Racketeering Act and subsequently sentenced to 15 years in prison. He was succeeded by John Philip Cerone.

July 13, 1967: Thomas Luchese Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes. He was succeeded eventually by Carmine Tramunti.

August 4, 1967: Frank Desimone, boss of the Los Angeles Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Nicolo Licata.

March 4, 1968: Peter Crociata, underboss in what was formerly known as the Bonanno Family, was shot and seriously wounded but eventually recovered.

March 8, 1968: Raymond Patriarca, boss of the New England Family, was convicted of violating the ITAR Statute and subsequently was sentenced to 5 years in prison.

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May 27, 1968: Carlo Caputo, boss of the Madison, Wisconsin, Family, was convicted on Federal charges of income tax evasion. He was subsequently sentenced to 30 days in jail and 23 months' probation.

May 29, 1968: The 'Truth in Lending Bill,' was signed into law, banning extortionate credit transactions and giving the FBI its first major jurisdiction in the hoodlum loan-sharking field.

June 19, 1968:  The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, providing for the use of court-approved electronic surveillance in certain types of cases, was signed into law.

August 8, 1968: Carlos Marcello, boss of the New Orleans Family, was convicted of attempting to assault an FBI Agent and subsequently sentenced to 2 years in prison.

September 14, 1968: Attendance of various warring factions at a reception given by Paul Sciacca, recently appointed head of the old Bonanno Family, was indicative of efforts being made to solve the blood feud and power struggle dating back to Joe Bonanno's expulsion from the Commission in 1964.

November 26, 1968: Steve Magaddino, Commission member from Buffalo, New York, and 8 underlings were arrested by FBI Agents for interstate gambling activities extending into portions of Canada.

February 14, 1969: Vito Genovese, Commission member from New York City, died of natural causes while incarcerated at the Medical Center for Federal Prisoners, Springfield, Missouri.

April 23, 1969: President Nixon sent a message to Congress proposing a campaign against the members of organized crime Families in the United States.

July 9, 1969: Nicolo Licata, boss of the Los Angeles Family, was convicted on Federal contempt charges and imprisoned until September 20, 1970.

July 9, 1969: A group of dissident members of the Buffalo Family met at the farm of Frank Valenti,

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near Henrietta, New York, and voted to form a rump organization until such time as the National Commission agreed to oust Steve Magaddino as the head of the Family. Allegedly responsible for the upheaval was a FBI raid of Magaddino's gambling operation the preceding November, leading to the confiscation of $500,000 at a time when Magaddino claimed to be suffering from a severe shortage of funds. Named to head the new group was Salvatore Pieri.

September 18, 1969: Frank Mari, heir apparent to Sciacca, boss of the Bonanno Family, and his bodyguard, Mike Adamo, were last seen alive. Both were reportedly murdered in the continuing dispute as to who would eventually gain control of the Family.

1970 - 1979

January 15, 1970: International bookmaking figure Gilbert Lee Beckley vanished in the New York City area while out on bond from a 1967 Federal gambling conviction. He is alleged to have been murdered.

January 17, 1970: Joseph Francis Civello, boss of the Dallas, Texas, Family, died of natural causes. This Family is no longer active.

May 9, 1970: John Philip Cerone, acting head of the Chicago Family, was convicted on interstate gambling charges. He was subsequently fined $10,000 and sentenced to 5 years in prison.

June 11, 1970:  Gaspare DiGregorio, appointed by the Commission to succeed Joe Bonanno following the latter's expulsion and disappearance in 1964, died of natural causes. DiGregorio had served as head of the Bonanno Family from January or February, 1965, until approximately May, 1966.

June 26, 1970; Sylvestro (Sam) Carollo, former boss of the New Orleans Family, died in New Orleans of natural causes.

July 27, 1970;  Scarcely 1 month after Miami newspapers reported that a Federal grand jury there had begun probing the alleged interstate

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transportation of gambling funds, notorious American hoodlum and gambling figure Meyer Lanky arrived in Israel, indicating his intention of applying for status as an immigrant.

August 20, 1970: Ignazio Denaro, underboss of the Philadelphia Family, died in Los Angeles of natural causes.

August 31, 1970: Raymond Patriarca, LCN boss of New England, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for conspiracy to murder.

September 15, 1970: Frank Milano, former boss of the Cleveland Family, died in Los Angeles of natural causes.

September 25, 1970: Salvatore Pieri, head of the insurgent LCN Family in the Buffalo area, was convicted on Federal charges of bribery and tampering with a juror during his earlier trial for violating the ITSP Statute. He was sentenced to 5 years in prison and was succeeded by Joseph Fino.

October 15, 1970: The Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 was signed into law, giving the FBI jurisdiction over major local gambling operations and hoodlum infiltration of legitimate business. Title IX of the Act is Racketeering Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Statute commonly referred to as the RICO Statute.

October 15, 1970: Carlos Marcello, boss of the New Orleans Family, was imprisoned for 6 months after the Supreme Court denied bail pending further appeals on his conviction for assaulting a Federal officer.

November 7, 1970: Joseph Aiello, underboss of the Madison, Wisconsin, Family, died of natural causes. This Family is no longer active.

January 15, 1971: Samuel Rizzo DeCavalcante, boss of the Elizabeth, New Jersey, Family, was convicted on interstate gambling charges and subsequently fined $10,000 and sentenced to 5 years in prison.

January 25, 1971: Frank Pasqua, a high ranking member of the Gambino Family, pled guilty for failure

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to file an income tax return for the year 1962.

March 16, 1971: Angelo Mele, a caporegime with the Gambino Family, and 4 associates were convicted for conspiracy to sell 2 kilos of heroin. Mele was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

April 3, 1971: Joe Valachi, one of the most protected prisoners in the history of the Federal prison system, died of natural causes at La Tuna Federal Penitentiary, El Paso, Texas.

May 12, 1971; Paul Sciacca, the leader of the Bonanno Family, and Michael Casale, a caporegime, were arrested for conspiring to sell and for the sale of heroin. Sciacca was replaced by Natale Evola.

June 28, 1971; Commission member Joseph Colombo was shot and critically wounded during a New York City street rally less than 3 months after being arrested by FBI Agents on Federal gambling charges. He was eventually succeeded by Thomas DiBella.

July 7, 1971;    Joseph (Scotty) Spinuzzi, boss of the Colorado Family since the retirement of former boss James Colletti during the latter part of 1969, was convicted on local gambling charges and sentenced to 1 year in prison.

September 17, 1971; James D. Plumeri, a captain in the New York City Family of the late Thomas Luchese was found strangled to death less than 6 months after his conviction on charges of violating the Welfare and Pension Plans Disclosure Act.

September 25, 1971: Felix (Milwaukee Phil) Alderisio, former high-ranking member of the Chicago Family, died of natural causes while serving a term for extortion in the United States Penitentiary at Marion, Illinois.

October 12, 1971: Alexander D'Alessio, who was identified by Joseph Valachi as a man who controls gambling on Staten Island for Gambino, was arrested in a raid of gambling establishments by FBI Agents.

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November 26, 1971: Joseph (Joe Adonis) Doto, former Brooklyn rackets figure, died of natural causes in Italy.

March 22, 1972: Nicholas Camerota, boss of the Genovese Family in Springfield, Massachusetts, died of natural causes.

March 31, 1972: The numbers operation of Gennaro Anguilo ceased due to the jailing of numbers runners for civil contempt. (Anguilo became the New England LCN leader with the imprisonment of Raymond Patriarca.)

April 7, 1972:   Joseph Gregory Gallo, head of a dissident faction within the Colombo Family and believed by many to have been behind the attempt on Colombo's life, was shot to death in a New York City restaurant. It had been a slaying that had been planned by Joseph Colombo before Gallo got him first.

April 26, 1972: Anthony Giardano, boss of the St. Louis Family, was convicted along with 2 captains from the Detroit Family and the Emprise Corporation, which has been described in the press as the country's largest sports concessionaire, on interstate gambling charges.

May 9, 1972: Illario Zannino and 2 associates--Zannino was the New England underboss--were ordered to begin serving sentences for transporting stolen jewelry in interstate commerce. Also convicted with Zannino in November, 1970, was former underboss, Peter Limone. Both Zannino and Limone got terms of 7 years' but Limone was already in prison, having been sentenced to death for a gangland murder in 1965.

June 5, 1972: Dominic Chirico, who was a close associate of Frank Valenti, was killed by individuals associated with the group which was dissatisfied with Valenti. Valenti appointed himself as boss of the Rochester LCN when Rochester became a separate operation from Buffalo. Valenti developed a reputation as very greedy and other LCN members became upset with Valenti because they did not feel that they were receiving their fair share of the proceeds from the Rochester mob. After the killing, Valenti was told to step aside, which he did on

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June 6, 1972. Samuel "Red" Russotti was appointed the boss.

July 16, 1972:   Thomas (Tommy Ryan) Eboli, acting boss of the former Genovese Family, was shot to death on a Brooklyn sidewalk at approximately 1 a.m. Eboli, who had been in a contest for control with Gerado Catena and was presumed to have prevailed, was succeeded by Frank Tieri.

July 9, 1972: Twelve members and associates of the Licata Family--it was named for Nicolo Licata (Los Angeles) who died in 1973--were indicted in the investigation of a shakedown ring whose victims were bookmakers, loansharks, and pimps. Among those named were Dominic Bruccieri (aka Dominic Brooklier), the underboss; Sam Sciortino, a caporegime; and Peter Milano, a caporegime.

August 11, 1972: An unidentified gunman shot 4 men to death at the Neapolitan Noodle, a Manhattan restaurant. The victims were wholesale meat dealers, having been mistaken apparently for Alphonse Persico, Jerry Langella, and other members of the Colombo Family faction, who were dining at the restaurant the same time.

August 25, 1972: Louis Donald Shoulders, notorious St. Louis hoodlum figure, was killed when a bomb exploded in his auto during the early morning hours.

October 11, 1972: Paul DeLucia, former boss of the Chicago Family, died of natural causes.

October 16, 1972: Approximately 1,200 police officers in New York City and surrounding counties--based partly upon information obtained from the FBI--commenced serving subpoenas on 677 LCN members and associates in what was described as a "massive probe of mob dealings in narcotics, prostitution, and extortion."

November 5, 1972: Meyer Lansky, American hoodlum and gambling figure, departed Israel after the Israeli Supreme Court denied his appeal for the continuance of his tourist visa or his application for immigrant status (previously rejected in September, 1971, by

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the Minister of the Interior). Although Lansky's airplane traveled through Switzerland, Africa, and several countries in South and Central America he was unable to gain entry to any other country and was arrested by FBI Agents at the Miami airport, November 7, 1972, on contempt of Federal grand jury charges.

November 13, 1972: Joseph Yacovelli, Carmine Persico, Carmine DiBiase, and Joseph Russo, of the Colombo Family, were indicted for their efforts to enable Russo to avoid prosecution for murder. (Mistrial was declared in the case against Persico and Russo on September 25, 1973, due to prejudicial publicity relating to Persico's background.)

December 7, 1972: 19 grand jury indictments were announced by the Manhattan District Attorney, Frank Hogan The principal subject was Vincent Rizzo, a caporegime in the Genovese Family, who had been tailed for 2 years by detectives in Hogan's office. (In February, 1973, the Federal Strike Force entered the investigation of Rizzo and his associates, as it began to assume worldwide proportions.) Eventually uncovered was a complex smuggling operation throughout Latin America, a number of incidents of loansharking and extortion and a scheme to sell counterfeit airline tickets. Rizzo was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

January 4, 1973: Frank Valenti, the criminal leader in Rochester until he was deposed, was sentenced to 20 years' for his conviction on multiple counts of extortion.

February 5, 1973: Henry Robert Sentner pled guilty to 7 counts of an indictment arising out of the alleged kidnaping and murder of Emanuel Gambino, nephew of Carlo Gambino. Sentner pled guilty to manslaughter June 1, 1973, and was sentenced to 15 years'.

February 6, 1973: Richard J. Todaro, an influential member of the Magaddino Family, was indicted on charges of running an illegal gambling business. Todaro also was charged with destruction of property to avoid seizure when he set fire to his records during an FBI search of his residence in March, 1972.

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February 18, 1973: Frank Costello, former Commission member from New York, died of natural causes.

August 3, 1973: Frank Brancato, alleged underboss of the Cleveland Family, was convicted on Federal gambling charges. Subsequently, be died of natural causes on December 17, 1973.

August 28, 1973: Natale Evola, boss of the Bonanno Family, died of natural causes. He was replaced by Philip Rastelli.

August 29, 1973: Sam Battaglia, former acting boss of the Chicago Family, was released from prison with a terminal illness. He died September 7, 1973.

September 12, 1973: Philip Testa, underboss of the Philadelphia Family, was convicted of contempt for refusing to testify before a Federal grand jury under a grant of immunity and was incarcerated until January 10, 1975.

October 25, 1973: Carmine Tramunti, boss of the Luchese Family, was convicted on Federal perjury charges and sentenced to 5 years in prison.

December 22, 1973: Vincent Aloi, former head of the Colombo Family, and John Dioguardi, notorious labor racketeer, was convicted of conspiring to defraud in a major stock-swindle case. Dioguardi received a 10-year prison term, and Aloi was sentenced to 9 years'.

January 23, 1974: Alphonse Persico, Colombo Family consiglieri, was sentenced to 2 months for contempt (although granted immunity, he refused to testify in a grand jury investigation of racketeering influence in legitimate business).

January 24, 1974: Carmine (Lilo) Galante, a close associate of former Commission member Joe Bonanno, was released from prison after serving 12 years on Federal narcotics charges and returned to New York City with avowed intention of gaining control of the Bonanno Family.

April 23, 1974: Michael Genovese, reported to be "second in command" of the Pittsburgh LCN Family, was ordered to jail for contempt after

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refusing to answer questions before a Federal grand jury.

May 8, 1974: John V. Camilleri, a caporegime, vas shot to death in what was seen as an outbreak of hostilities between rival factions of the Magaddino Family--1 led by Salvatore Pieri, the other by Joseph Fino.

July 19, 1974:   Stefano Magaddino, Commission member from Buffalo, New York, died of natural causes. He was succeeded after considerable debate by Sam Frangiamore, a ranking member of the dissident group, in hopes of restoring peace to the Buffalo Family.

July 18, 1974:   Sam Giancana was deported by the Mexican Government and forced to return to Chicago.

August 22, 1974: Frank Zito, boss of the Springfield, Illinois, Family, died of natural causes.

October 9, 1974: A body, believed to be that of Dominick Scialo, a Colombo Family caporegime, vas discovered buried in the basement of a Brooklyn social club.

October 19, 1974: Nicolo Licata, boss of the Los Angeles Family, died of natural causes. He was succeeded by Dominic Brooklier.

December 26, 1974: Raymond Patriarca, the LCN boss of New England, was granted parole having served 5 years of a 10-year sentence for conspiracy to murder 2 Providence bookmakers, Rudolph Marfeo and Anthony Malei.

March 17, 1975: Richard Callei, a high-ranking LCN figure in the New England LCN Family, was reportedly killed. Callei's body was found (he had been shot, knifed, and beaten with a blunt instrument) in Rehoboth, Massachusetts.

April 9, 1975:   Dominic Brooklier, boss; Sam Sciortino, underboss; and Peter Milano, a captain of the Los Angeles Family were all convicted of violating the RICO Statute by extorting money from local bookmakers and businessmen. Sentences ranged from 15 months to 4 years'.

May 14, 1975: Nick Civella, boss of the Kansas City

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Family, was convicted of violating Federal gambling statutes with 3 associates.

June 19, 1975:  Sam Giancana, former Commission member, was found shot to death in his Oak Park, Illinois, residence.

July 1, 1975: Paul Castellano, the underboss of the Gambino Family, and 8 associates were charged with "forming an enterprise that was designed to operate by collecting debts that had resulted from usurious loans." A directed acquittal was ordered on November 16, 1976, following the refusal of the principal witness to testify in the trial.

July 10, 1975:   Nicholas Civella, boss of the Kansas City Family, his nephew Anthony Civella, and 2 associates, were sentenced to 42 months in prison following their convictions for conspiring to run an interstate bookmaking business. Two other co-defendants each received terms of 2 years' and 90 days. Subsequent to sentencing, Nicholas Civella was diagnosed as having cancer and underwent surgery. In April, 1977, he moved for a reduction of sentence to probation, or that he be allowed to serve tine at home, because of ill health. The Government argued that prison medical facilities were adequate to treat him, and he was resentenced on July 26, 1977, to 3 years'. Civella was paroled on June 14, 1978, having served 10 months. According to Government informant sources, he ordered that all pending murder contracts be acted on before his release, to offset the public outcry over his parole. On May 2, 1978, Myron Mancuso was found shot to death, having attended a meeting earlier that day with Carl Civella, Nicholas Civella's brother, and Anthony Cardarella, a reputed hitman. On May 4, 1978, Michael Massy, a former associate of Cardarella, was found shot to death. And on May 16, 1978, 3 members of the rival Spero faction, Mike, Carl, and Joe Spero, were gunned down in a bar, killing Mike Spero and wounding his brothers.

July 28, 1975:   James Colletti, former boss of the Colorado Family, died of natural causes.

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July 30, 1975:   Former Teamsters President, James R. Hoffa, disappeared. His body has never been found, nor has the case been solved. It is the consensus of people close to the investigation that Hoffa was murdered as a result of his efforts to regain the Teamsters' presidency and his verbal threats about disclosing the LCN control of the Teamsters if, in fact, be did not regain the Teamsters' presidency.

September 6, 1975: Joseph Spinuzzi, boss of the Colorado Family, died of natural causes.

October 15, 1975: Carlo Gambino died of natural causes. Before his death he instituted a major regrouping program; replenishment of manpower and the consolidation of forces were entailed. The family membership roles were opened in 1973, for first time in 16 years—they had been closed to prevent Government infiltration--and Sicilian aliens were being smuggled in by the hundreds via Canada, to work in pizza parlors and be available for underworld dirty work. He was succeeded by his son-in-law Paul Castellano.

November 18, 1975: Mario Pannicioli, a Gambino associate, was murdered while he was on his way to court to stand trial for a gangland murder. Pannicioli was also under investigation in a million-dollar bank swindle.

November 20, 1975: John Nardi, a ranking LCN leader in Ohio, was arrested as a result of an indictment returned in the Southern District of Florida. Nardi, Secretary-Treasurer of Teamsters Local 410, was a member of Teamsters Joint Council 41, of which William Presser was President.

November 23, 1975: Jimmy "The Hammer" Massaro was killed. After an investigation was conducted by the Monroe County Sheriff's Office, Red Russotti, Rene Piccaretto, Sam Gingello, Dick Marino, Tom Marotta, and Eugene Di Francesco, were convicted of Massaro's murder, and all received sentences of 25 years' on January 1, 1977. Thomas Didio was placed in charge of the Rochester LCN.

January 2, 1976: Antonio Caponigro, the consigliere of the Bruno Family in Philadelphia, pled guilty

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to assaulting a Federal officer. Caponigro had been successfully avoiding the service of a subpoena by the New Jersey Commission on Investigation "by residing in Manhattan and returning to his New Jersey home only sporadically and clandestinely." On December 31, 1974, in an effort to avoid what he believed was a process server, Caponigro rammed the car of an FBI Agent, who was blocking his driveway. He was sentenced to 30 months in prison.

January 23, 1976: Frank Cucchiara is a founding member of the New England LCN organization and was once an associate of Lucky Luciano and Vito Genovese. Frank Cucchiara and his wife were found shot to death at their hose in Belmont, Massachusetts. Police theorized that Cucchiara, 79, killed his wife and then committed suicide.

February 12, 1976: Joseph Barboza, who had been a Government witness, was shotgunned to death in San Francisco. Barboza's testimony had led to the conviction of Raymond Patriarca for conspiracy to commit murder.

February 20, 1976: A plea by Carmine Persico, boss of the Colombo Family, for reduction of his 14-year sentence for hijacking was denied.

March 13, 1976: Illario Zannino, the New England Family underboss, returned to prison. Zannino, serving 7 years' for fencing stolen diamonds, had been released by a Federal judge on Zannino's claim that he had been denied parole "because he had been improperly labeled as a member of organized crime."

March 19, 1976: Lawrence Paladino, the godson of Frank "Funzie" Tieri, was indicted for tax evasion. Paladino, who allegedly was in the shylock business with Matthew Ianiello, had been indicted for extortion and bribery in 1975. With the death of Tieri, who would be succeeded by Anthony Salerno, Ianiello would become the underboas of the Genovese Family.

March 31, 1976: Francesco Scibelli, long an LCN leader in western Massachusetts, was convicted with 8 associates for operating an illegal gambling business.

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April 20, 1976: Louis Pucci, a relative by marriage of Carlo Gambino and a ranking member of the Gambino Family, was sentenced to 3 months for criminal contempt after refusing to testify before a grand jury investigating loansharking.

April 21, 1976: Joseph Colombo and 30 additional defendants were indicted and charged with illegal gambling. Evidence obtained by court-ordered electronic surveillance indicated Colombo supervised large-scale gambling operations.

April 23, 1976: Philip Rastelli, the Bonanno Family boss was convicted of an antitrust violation and extortion, arising out of his efforts to create a monopoly in the mobile commissary business. Rastelli was sentenced on August 27, 1976, to 1 year on the antitrust count and to 3 concurrent 10-year terms on 3 counts of extortion.

May 28, 1976: Frank Diecidue, the Tampa Family underboss, was indicted with several associates and charged with conspiracy and multiple counts relating to their participation in a RICO. Diecidue was convicted on November 16, 1976, along with 4 members of the Tampa gang.

June 23, 1976:  Richard Marino, a caporegime in the Rochester Family, was convicted of the murder in 1973 of Vincenzo Massaro. On November 10, 1976, 5 other Rochester crime figures, including Salvatore Russotti, the boss, and Rene Piccarreto, the consigliere, were also convicted in the slaying of Massaro.

September 2, 1976: Leo Moceri was the organized crime boss in Akron and reportedly the number-2 man in northern Oho to James Licavoli, who had succeeded Johni Scalish. Scalish died of natural causes in 1976. Moceri was reported missing and presumed dead after his damaged and bloodstained automobile was discovered in a motel parking lot in a suburb of Akron.

September 5, 1976: John Cutrone, a Gallo loyalist who defected after the death of Joseph Gallo and formed an independent gang, was machinegunned to death in a luncheonette in Brooklyn, New York.

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May 17, 1977: John Nardi, one of the leaders of the anti-Licavoli faction in Cleveland was killed by the remote control detonation of a bomb that had been placed in an automobile parked next to Nardi's.

June 13, 1977:  Vincent Napoli, a principal family associate of the Gambino Family, was one of 5 indicted for importing and distributing quantities of heroin. Napoli, the leader of the ring, was convicted on November 14, 1977, and was sentenced on December 20, 1977, to 10 years in prison.

April 14, 1977: Anthony Palimeri, aka Tony Grande, a longtime labor racketeer who grew up with Carlo Gambino and was a caporegime in the Gambino Family, pled guilty to extortion. Specifically, Palimeri was collecting protection money from home builders in New York and New Jersey and funneling the receipts through his plumbing company. He was sentenced to 3 years in prison on June 16, 1977.

October 6, 1977: Daniel Patrick Greene was killed by an explosive device detonated as he entered his car on a Cleveland street. His death culminated an organized crime feud that had started in 1975. The battle was over the control of the Cleveland LCN Family's activities in northeast Ohio. It was brought about by the sudden and unexpected death of the former LCN boss John Scalish, and the succession to the throne by James T. Licavoli. A refusal of the Greene group to accept this change in power led to this war. As a result of investigations that followed, James T. Licavoli, the head of the Cleveland Family; James T. Fratianno, and others were indicted for murder.

November 19, 1977: Joseph Zerilli, the boss of the Detroit LCN, died of natural causes and was succeeded by Jack Tocco.

January 6, 1978: Eight leading crime figures were indicted as the result of a grand jury investigation of the bombing deaths of John Nardi on May 17, 1977, and Daniel Greene on October 6, 1977. These included James Licavoli, the boss of the Cleveland Family; Angelo Lonardo, underboss; John Calandra,

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Ronald Carabbia, Pasquale Cisternino, Thomas Sinito, Alfred Calabrese, and Aladena Fratianno, aka Jimmy Fratianno. On August 25, 1978, 2 other LCN associates, Thomas Lanai and Kenneth Ciarcia, were found guilty of aggravated murder charges in the death of Greene. On January 15, 1979, Raymond Ferritto, a recognized hit man, testified that he stalked Greene for several months in an effort to determine the best way to do away with him. As part of a negotiated plea agreement, Ferritto received a 5-year sentence. Ferritto's cooperation led to the indictment of Licavoli and others, including Fratianno. As a direct result of his implication in the Greene war of Cleveland, James Fratianno turned himself over to the FBI and became a protected witness. Fratianno later came to testify in Federal cases throughout the country. On July 30, 1982, Licavoli was sentenced to 17 years' for the killing of Greene.

February 28, 1978: The 5 top LCN leaders in Los Angeles were indicted on charges including RICO violations, extortion, and obstruction of a criminal investigation. The defendants were Dominic Brooklier, boss; Samuel Sciortino, underboss; Louis Tom Dragna, influential member; and Jack LoCiero, consigliere.

May 1, 1978: Joseph Napolitan, an LCN member from the New England Family, was convicted of conspiring to distribute $3.3 million in counterfeit $100 bills.  Napolitan's defense was based on his claim to have been an FBI informant. On September 6, 1978, Napolitan and an associate were found murdered in New York.

June 12, 1978:  Salvatore Bonanno and Joseph Bonanno, Jr. had their paroles revoked for reporting their incomes inaccurately, and were sentenced to 30 months and 34 months, respectively. Both Bonanno brothers had been convicted of extortion in 1972.

June 14, 1978:  Anthony Provenzano, a caporegime and Secretary-Treasurer of Teamsters Local 560, and Harold Konigsberg, a contract killer with Genovese credentials, were convicted of the murder of Anthony Castellito, a

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union rival of Provenzano. Provenzano and Konigsberg each were sentenced on June 21, 1978, for 25 years' to life imprisonment.

June 16, 1978:  William Cammisano and his brother, Joseph, who ware members of the Kansas City LCN and  reputed enforcers for Civella, were indicted for "conspiracy to extort the property of Fred Bonadonna." Bonadonna was the owner of a bar in the River Quay area, and Joseph Cammisano in the mid-1970s was interested in opening establishments featuring adult entertainment there. Fred Bonadonna, despite threats by the Cammisanos, opposed the plan and with the support of his father David, once a criminal associate of William Cammisano, decided to continue his opposition to the plan. On July 22, 1976, David Bonadonna was found shot to death in the trunk of his car. Fred Bonadonna, in March, 1977, entered the Government program for protected witnesses and was scheduled to testify against the Cammisanos. On October 23, 1978, the day the trial was to begin, the Cammisanos entered into plea agreements, and they were sentenced on November 22, 1978. William was sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment and Joseph to 18 months'.

August 5, 1978: Anthony Milano, the 90-year-old consigliere of the Cleveland Family, died of natural causes.

August 8, 1978: Russell Bufalino, LCN boss from Pittson, was convicted in U.S. District Court, SDNY on charges of extortion.

November 8, 1978: Joseph Volpe, who worked as a handyman for Anthony Accardo, was reported missing and presumed murdered. Volpe, like Accardo, had been questioned by a grand jury investigating the torture and murder of 6 known burglars, occurring within 4 weeks of a breaking and entering of Accardo's home. The burglary had been discovered by Volpe. As the investigation progressed, it became apparent that proof of a burglary at the Accardo home was substantial proof of a motive for the 6 murders. At a hearing on November 16, 1978, Accardo sought the return of property seized in a search of his home for evidence in the disappearance

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of Volpe. (In addition to 2 .38 caliber handguns and $275,000 in $100 and $50 bills located in a hidden vault in the basement, remnants of eyeglasses similar to those worn by Volpe were found by the FBI in an incinerator.) Accardo's plea for return of the property vas denied, as the court ruled that the affidavit for the search warrant was sufficient and the items were properly seized, even though they were not covered by the warrant.

November 20, 1978: Salvatore Piere, the boss of the Buffalo Family, pled guilty to illegal gambling charges.

January 17, 1979: Anthony Scotto, (son-in-law of Albert Anastasia, Murder Inc.) a caporegime of the Gambino LCN Family, was indicted on charges of taking $200,000 in a pattern of illegal payoffs. Scotto, the President of Brooklyn ILA Local 1814 and the General Organizer of the ILA, was one of the most influential labor leaders in New York State.

April 14, 1979: Giovanno Priziola, 84, a former consigliere with the Detroit LCN, died of natural causes.

April 26, 1979: Anthony Russo, a ranking Genovese loyalist who had been a chauffeur and bodyguard for Genovese and was the gang leader in Monmouth County, New Jersey, where Genovese had lived was found shot to death in Long Branch, New Jersey. Russo had been the subject of FBI surveillance which revealed details of hidden casino ownership and skimming in Las Vegas.

July 12, 1979:   Carmine Galante, the boss of the Bonanno Family, was gunned down as he ate lunch at Joe and Mary's Restaurant in Brooklyn, New York.

November 15, 1979: Raffaele Quasarano and Peter Vitale, members of a council of 6 that supposedly ruled LCN activities in Detroit, were indicted for RICO, racketeering, extortion, mail fraud, and tax fraud. The charges were related to the takeover in 1972 of a cheese company in Wisconsin. Both Quasarano and Vitale were involved in events surrounding the disappearance of James Hoffa. (It was speculated they were

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involved because they owned a sanitation company, which reportedly had been used to dispose of LCN murder victims.)

1980 - 1987

March 21, 1980: Angelo Bruno, the boss of the Philadelphia Family, was killed by a shotgun blast. Some believe Bruno was killed because of his reluctance to share Atlantic City. The murder set off a series of 15 gangland-style killings as family members and associates fought among themselves. Philip Charles Testa assumed control of the family.

January 20, 1981: As a result of Jimmy Fratianno's testimony, Dominic Brooklier was sentenced to 4 years. Samuel Scoirtino, 4 years'; Louis Tom Dragna, 2 years': Michael Rizzitello, 5 years; and Jack LoCicero, 2 years'. They had been convicted of racketeering charges, which included the murder of Frank Bompensiero.

January 23, 1981: Frank "Funzie" Tieri, boss of the Genovese Family, was convicted of operating a criminal group through a pattern of racketeering which included murder and extortion. He was the first boss convicted.

March 1, 1981: Salvatore Catalano, a Sicilian, stepped down as boss of the Bonnano Family.  Sources indicated that Catalano felt he was unable to communicate with members of the Bonnano Family as well as outsiders because of language problems.

March 15, 1981: The new Philadelphia LCN boss, Philip Charles Testa, was murdered by a powerful bomb blast as he attempted to enter the front door of his residence. Testa was succeeded by Nicodemo Dominic Scarfo.

January 28, 1982: Attorney General Smith gave the FBI concurrent jurisdiction in matters involving the Controlled Substances Act.

February 26, 1982: Chicago organized crime figure Frank Renella was sentenced to 7 years'

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imprisonment for violation of the ECT, Hobbs Act-Extortion, and bail-jumping statutes. This investigation received considerable public interest due to the gangland slaying of local businessman Nick Velentzas. Velentzas had been threatened by Renella and his associates on numerous occasions regarding loansharking and protection payments for his small business.

July 20, 1982:   Cleveland LCN boss James Licavoli was sentenced to 17 years in prison for RICO, gambling, murder, and conspiracy charges in U.S. District Court, Cleveland, Ohio.

August 17, 1982: In U.S. District Court in Camden, New Jersey, Nicodemo Scarfo's bail was revoked on a prior conviction for possession of firearms by a convicted felon. Scarfo was immediately remanded to prison. While incarcerated, he maintained control of the Philadelphia LCN Family through Salvatore Merlino, underboss, and Nicholas Piccolo, the consigliere.

September 11, 1982: After a wave of murders and bombings of police officers, investigating magistrates, and judges in Sicily and other parts of Italy, the legislature of the Central Government of Italy enacted the Anti-Mafia Law. This law has had a significant impact on Sicilian Mafia heroin traffickers. One of the main features of the Anti-Mafia Law is that association with known Mafia types is illegal, whether or not a crime is committed. It is the basis of this action that led to the worldwide arrest in 1984 of over 460 members and associates of the Sicilian Mafia. The trial of these defendants, called the "Maxi-trial," began in February, 1986, in Palermo, Sicily. The "Maxi-trial" is called the most intense crackdown of the Sicilian Mafia since the "Mori Operation" was instituted in the 1920s by Mussolini. (Between 1922 and 1929, at least 500 Sicilian Mafiosi fled to the United States. The fugitives included Joseph Bonanno, Mike Cappola, Stefano Maggadino, Joe Magliocco, Salvatore Moranzano, and Joseph Profaci. These men would become the nucleus of LCN leadership in the United States.)

October 14, 1982: Formation of Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force (OCDETF) Program

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December 6, 1982: The 3 top members of the Denver LCN Family, boss Eugene Smaldone, underboss Clarence Smaldone, and consigliere Paul Villano, were convicted for extortionate credit transactions, tax evasion, and conspiracy following a lengthy investigation by the Denver Division. They are all currently serving 10-year sentences.

December 15, 1982: Allen M. Dorfman, a well-known Chicago insurance executive with ties to the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) Union and LCN members, was convicted in U.S. District Court, Chicago, Illinois. The trial of Dorfman, IBT President Roy L. Williams LCN capo Joseph Lombardo, IBT Trustee Thomas O'Malley, and former IBT Trustee Amos Massa concluded with all 5 being found guilty on all counts of the charges of attempting to bribe Nevada Senator Howard Cannon to influence favorable action regarding trucking industry deregulation.

October 26, 1983: Angelo Lonardo, underboss of the Cleveland LCN Family, facing a life plus a 103-year sentence, began supplying the FBI with vital information concerning the LCN.  Lonardo, the highest ranking member ever to defect, was instrumental in later court cases involving the LCN. On March 10, 1987, U.S. District Court Judge John Mandos reduced Lonardo's sentence to time served and 5 years' probation.

February 7, 1984: The entire hierarchy of the Kansas City LCN was indicted by a special Federal grand jury in Kansas City, Missouri. The RICO indictment used 4 predicate violations: the 1978 conspiracy to murder Carl Spero; LCN hidden interest in skimming from the Argent corporation; LCN hidden interest in skimming from the Tropicana casino; and the LCN skimming of the Kansas City bingo business. On September 4, 1984, subsequent to guilty pleas, Carl Civella received a 10- to 30-year sentence with a fine and Anthony Civella was sentenced to 5 years' and a fine.

April 9, 1984:   Milwaukee LCN boss Frank Balistrieri and his 2 attorney sons, Joseph and John, were convicted of a Hobbs Act-Extortion

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violation. This case involved the life-threatening extortion of an FBI undercover Agent by Balistrieri. The Special Agent was introduced to Balistrieri as a vending-machine representative of the Bonanno Family members Lefty Ruggiero and Mike Sabella. The extortion was the Balistrieri's response to the undercover Agent's attempts to intrude into the Milwaukee vending-machine business without prior Balistrieri approval. On May 29, 1984, Frank Balistrieri was sentenced to 13 years' and on July 30, 1984, Joseph and John Balistrieri each received 8-year prison sentences and fines.

June, 1984: Italy and the United States had the first meeting of the Italian-U.S. Working Group on Drug Interdiction.

July 2, 1984: The U.S. Supreme Court cleared the way for state officials to take an active role in policing labor union leadership, ruling 4 to 3 that labor leaders can be required by law to be of good moral character.

July 11, 1984:   Raymond L. S. Patriarca, boss of the New England LCN Family, died of natural causes.

July 18, 1984:   Dominic Brooklier, boss of the Los Angeles Family, died in jail of natural causes while serving a 5-year sentence on racketeering charges. He was succeeded by Peter John Milano. Milano, who at present continues as boss of the family, has reorganized the structure and has increased the family activities in the Los Angeles area.

September 18, 1984: Anthony Corallo, boss of the Luchese Family, was among 21 persons and 16 organizations indicted for conspiring to dominate the private garbage collection business on Long Island. It also charged that disputes among the conspirators were settled by Corallo and Paul Castellano, boss of the Gambino Family, and that Corallo and Castellano split quarterly payments of over $50,000 from the companies.

December 5/7, 1984: Rosario Gambino, Erasmo Gambino, Anthony Spatola, and Antonio Gambino, alleged

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soldiers of the Gambino Family, were sentenced to combined time of 143 years' imprisonment and $300,000 in fines for drug charges.

February 25, 1985: A Federal grand jury meeting in the SDNY indicted the top leadership of the 5 New York LCN Families under the RICO Statute for operating a criminal enterprise known as the LCN Commission. This RICO indictment was made up of predicate acts of Hobbs Act-Extortion, murder, and labor racketeering. The following individuals were indicted: Anthony Salerno-boss-Genovese Family; Paul Castellano-boss-Gambino Family; Aniello Dellacroce - underboss-Gambino Family; Gennaro Langella-acting boss-Colombo Family; Anthony Corallo-boss-Luchese Family; Salvatore Santoro-underboss-Luchese Family; Christopher Furnari-consigliere-Luchese Family; Philip Rastelli-boss-Bonanno Family.

June 25, 1985:  Colombo LCN Family boss Carmine "Junior" Persico was charged with extortion and murder, respectively in the Commission case.

November 12, 1985:    Anthony Indelicato, Bonanno LCN member, was indicted in a superseding indictment (Commission case) charging him with the murders of Carmine Galante, Leonard Coppolla, and Guiseppe Turano.

November 23, 1985: James T. Licavoli, Cleveland boss, at the age of 81 died of a heart attack at Oxford Federal Correctional Institution, Oxford, Wisconsin.

December 2, 1985: Aniello Dellacroce, Gambino Family underboss, died of natural causes.

December 16, 1985: Paul Castellano, boss of the Gambino LCN Family, was killed in a mob hit on a New York City street. Only a few weeks after the slaying, John Gotti was installed as the new boss of the Gambino Family.

December 19, 1985: Michael Franzese, a Colombo Family member, was indicted for RICO violations involving his scheme of selling gasoline to retailers while failing to pay Federal, state, and local taxes.

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January 21, 1986: In U.S. District Court, Kansas City, Missouri, guilty verdicts were returned against Chicago LCN members Joseph Aiuppa, boss; John Cerone, underboss; Angelo LaPierta, capo; and Joseph Lombardo, capo. These verdicts culminated an extensive 5-year FBI investigation directed at a conspiracy among the Chicago Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Kansas City LCN Families to obtain loans from the Central States Pension Fund (CSPF).

March 20, 1986: A 29-count Federal indictment was returned charging Anthony Salerno, boss of the Genovese LCN Family, and 14 other members with a variety of offenses, including conspiracy, racketeering and extortion.

June 13, 1986:  Guilty verdicts were returned against the leadership of the Colombo Family in the SDNY. The defendants were charged with RICO, conspiracy, extortion, and bribery.

            Following the convictions, the U.S. Attorney's Office filed a Civil RICO complaint against family members. This was the first Civil RICO complaint filed against an LCN family as an enterprise, and the labor unions they influence.

June 23, 1986:  The bodies of Michael and Anthony Spilotro were found in a grave in Morocco, Indiana.

June 23, 1986:  U.S. District Court Judge Harold A. Ackerman of Newark, New Jersey, named a trustee to operate Teamsters Local 560. The Local had been dominated by the Provenzano faction of the Genovese Family for more than 25 years.

September 25, 1986: Trial began for Gambino boss John Gotti, who was charged with an 18-year series of crimes, including gambling, loan-sharking, armored-car robbery, and homicide. In addition to the above charges, Gotti was named as an unindicted coconspirator in another case.

October 24, 1986: A 51-count indictment was returned in SDNY charging 2 former bosses and 1 current boss

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of the Colombo LCN Family, 4 capos, soldiers, and 2 criminal associates with engaging in a criminal enterprise (the Colombo LCN) to obtain money through widespread racketeering activities.

October 31, 1986: Nicodemo Scarfo, boss of the Philadelphia LCN Family, and others were indicted by a New Jersey state grand jury for loansharking, gambling, and extortion violations as well as racketeering.

November 5, 1986: Harry Davidoff, Vice President of IBT Local 851, was found guilty after a jury trial in the Eastern District of New York (EDNY) of RICO-Conspiracy, 2 counts of the Hobbs Act-Extortion, and 2 counts of Hobbs Act-Conspiracy. This investigation was directed at the LCN's control of the air freight industry at JFK International Airport through its influence within the Teamsters Union. On October 10, 1986, during the above trial, Paul Vario (Luchese LCN capo) and Frank Manzo and Pasquale Raucci (Luchese soldiers) pled guilty to RICO-Conspiracy. To date, 9 of the 11 defendants indicted on February 15, 1985 have pled guilty. Salvatore Santoro (Luchese underboss) was severed in that he was a defendant in the "LCN Commission" prosecution under way in New York.

November 18, 1986: Carmine (Junior) Persico, head of the Colombo LCN Family, was sentenced to 39 years' in prison for racketeering. Also sentenced was Colombo underboss Gennaro (Jerry Lang) Lamella who received 65 years', and other Colombo members and associates.

November 24, 1986: Anthony "Fat Tony" Salerno, head of the Genovese LCN Family, and 3 other mob figures were indicted for "exerting influence and control over Jackie Presser's selection as General President for the scandal-plagued 1.7 million member union (IBT) in 1983 and then influencing his decisions and acts to benefit the mob."

December 2, 1986: Gaetano Mazzara's body was found stuffed in a garbage bag and left on a street corner in an industrial section of Brooklyn, New York. Mazzara, owner of a Union, New Jersey pizzeria, was 1 of 20 men on trial

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on charges of participating in an international drug-smuggling and money-laundering ring. The case became known as the "Pizza Connection" because the ring allegedly used pizza parlors in the Midwest and Northeast as fronts to market more than $3.6 billion in heroin imported over a 10- year period. He was the second known individual believed shot in connection with the trial.

December 23, 1986: A 61-count indictment was returned in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania charging 19 individuals associated with Roofers Union local 30 under the RICO Statute w the predicate violations being extortion, embezzlement, and bribery. Judges Esther R. Sylvester, Court of Common Pleas and Mario F. Driggs, Municipal Court, were charged in separate indictments with 1 count each of extortion.

January 13, 1987: U.S. District Court Judge Richard Queen SDNY, sentenced the below-listed defendants in the Commission case as follows:

Anthony Salerno, Genovese Family boss, received 100 years' to run consecutively and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Carmine Persico, Colombo Family boss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and fined $240,000 with no parole.

Gennaro Langella, Colombo Family underboss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000, with no parole.

Ralph Scopo, Colombo Family soldier, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Anthony Corallo, Luchese Family boss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined $240,000 with no parole.

Salvatore Santoro, Luchese Family underboss, was sentenced to 100 years' to run consecutively, and was fined 250,000 with no parole.

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Anthony Indelicato, Bonanno Family member, was sentenced to 40 years in prison to run consectively, and fined $50,000 with no parole.

January 15, 1987: Federal Magistrate Edwin E. Naythons ruled that Philadelphia Family boss Nicodemo Scarfo was a public danger and ordered him held without bail pending his trial on charges that he had planned an extortion scheme with a city councilman.

January 16, 1987: Philip Rastelli, boss of the Bonanno Family, was sentenced to 12 years in a Federal prison for directing a massive labor racketeering conspiracy from 1964 to 1985 (IBT Local 814).

January 20, 1987: The U.S. Parole Commission ruled that ailing former Teamsters Union boss Roy L. Williams must serve his full 10-year prison term for conspiring to bribe a U.S. Senator. Williams, aged 71, will be in prison until May 31, 1992.

March 2, 1987: A New York jury returned guilty verdicts against 18 subjects in the much-publicized "Pizza Connection" trial. As a direct result of this investigation, an additional 175 Mafia members and associates in Italy were indicted. The only acquittal in this case was for Vito Badalamenti, the son of Gaetano Badalamenti, who was the former chief of the Sicilian Mafia and known in Italy as the boss of all bosses.

March 12, 1987: Illario Zannino, a high-ranking member of the New England LCN Family, was sentenced to 30 years in prison. Zannino, who apologized for saying that he hoped the jurors would die when they found him guilty, was sentenced to 5 years in prison on each count of running an underground gambling business and to 15 years' for extortion involving Donald Smoot, a gambler who owed him $14,000 for poker losses.

March 13, 1987: Gambino LCN boss, John Gotti, and 5 defendants were acquitted on RICO and conspiracy charges by a U.S. petit jury in New York City.

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March 17, 1987: Santo Trafficante Jr., Tampa LCN boss, died of natural causes.

April 22, 1987: U.S. District Court Judge Vincent L. Broderick, SDNY, entered a judgment in the civil matter between the USA and Local 6A and others. His judgement enjoins Gennaro Langella, the Colombo LCN Family (and any persons associated with or members of the Colombo LCN Family), the Comsission of the LCN (and any persons associated with or members of the Commission of the LCN), Carmine Persico Dominic Montemarano, Ralph Scopo, Anthony Salerno, Anthony Corallo Salvatore Santoro, and Christopher Furnari from: (A) Participating in any way in the affairs of Local 6A, the Cement and Concrete Workers Union or any other labor organization or employee benefit plan as defined in Title 29 of the U.S. Code; (B) Having and dealing with any officer, auditor, or employee of Local 6A or any other labor organisation or employee plan about any matter which relates, directly or indirectly, to the affairs of the labor organization and (C) Participating in any way or profiting from any concrete construction business in SDNY or elsewhere.

May 19, 1987: Mildred Carmella Russo, a clerk in U.S. District Court SDNY, was indicted by a Federal grand jury and charged with OOJ. Investigation revealed that Russo had been furnishing sealed information to Gambino LCN Family members and associates for over 10 years.

May 21, 1987: Peter and Carmen Milano, boss and underboss of the Los Angles Family, were indicted by a Federal grand jury in Los Angeles. The indictment also charged 13 other defendants with conspiring to violate the RICO Statute by being part of a criminal enterprise, LCN, engaged in drug trafficking, OOJ, and extortion.

June 13, 1987:  The following members of the Colombo LCN Family were convicted of engaging in a criminal enterprise, the Colombo Family, to obtain profits through labor racketeering: Carmine Persico, boss; Gennaro Langella,

57

349

underboss; John Deross and Andrew Russo, capos; and Dominic Cataldo and Alphonse Persico.

August 4, 1987: Philadelphia LCN boss Nicodemo Scarfo and 6 associates pled not guilty to charges of conspiracy and murder in 1 of 3 gangland slayings. The 7 were charged in the July 1985 killing of Frank D'Alfonso.

August 26, 1987: A civil RICO complaint was filed in the EDNY against the Bonanno LCN Family, its top hierarchy, labor union locals, and property controlled by this family. The complaint asked the court to appoint a trustee to manage Bonanno-dominated Teamster Local 814, and called for the forfeiture of 3 properties used for gambling purposes and the divestiture of 3 hotels and a taxi company. It also barred specific Bonanno Family members from engaging in unlawful activities, from making new family members, and from associating with each other for business purposes. This is the first time that the Government had attempted to enjoin the operation of an organized crime family, and, if they are successful, family members will face tough contempt sanctions should they engage in certain of their traditional activities.

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351     

INDEX

Abati, Mike                                                                                                      18, 25

Accardo, Anthony                                                                                       15, 16, 46

Ackerman, Harold A.                                                                                       53

Adamo, Girolomo (Momo)                                                                               20, 23

Adamo, Joe                                                                                                      23

Adamo, Mike                                                                                                   32

Adonis, Joe (Joseph Doto)                                                                          16, 20, 35

Aiello, Joseph                                                                                                   8, 33

Aiuppa, Joseph                                                                                                 53

Alderisio, Felix (Milwaukee Phil)                                                                       34

Alioto, John                                                                                                      18, 25

Aloi, Vincent                                                                                                    38

Amari, Philip (Big Phil)                                                                                     21, 27

Amato, Joseph                                                                                                 6

American Federation Of Iabor (AFL)                                                               18

Anastasia, Albert                                                                            16, 17, 21, 22, 47

Angiulo, Gennaro                                                                                              35

Anti-Mafia Law                                                                                                49

Apalachin                                                                                  7, 20, 21, 22, 23, 30

Ardizonne, Joe                                                                                                  9

Avena, John (John Nazzone)                                                                             12

Badalamenti, Vito                                                                                             56

Balistrieri, Frank Peter                                                                          25, 30, 51

Balistrieri, John                                                                                                 51

Balistrieri, Joseph                                                                                              51

Barbara, Joseph M.                                                                                    20, 22, 23

Batista, Fulgencio                                                                                       12, 13, 23

Battaglia, Sam                                                                                                  30, 38

Bazzano, Johnn                                                                                                 9, 10

Beckley, Gilbert Lee                                                                                         32

Betting and Gaming Act of 1960                                                                       24

Biernat, Anthony J.                                                                                           27

Binaggio, Charles                                                                                              13, 17

Binghamton, New York                                                                             20, 22, 23

Bioff, Willie                                                                                                      19

Boccia, Ferdinand (The Shadow)                                                                      11, 15

Boiardo, Ruggiero                                                                                            22

Bompensiero, Frank                                                                                         19, 48

Bonadonna, David                                                                                            46

Bonadonna, Fred                                                                                              46

Bonanno, Joseph Jr.                                       9, 14, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 38, 49

Bonanno, Joseph                                                                                              45

Bonanno, Salvatore (Bill)                                                                                  45

Brancato, Frank                                                                                               38

Broncato, Tony                                                                                                17

Brooklier, Dominic (Dominic Bruccleri)                                            36, 39, 45, 48, 51

Bruno, Angelo                                                                                                  23, 48

Bruno, Joseph                                                                                                  16

Buccola, Phillip                                                                                                18

Buchalter, Louis Lepke                                                                                    10, 13

Bufalino, Russell A.                                                                                           24, 46

Caffrey, Raymond                                                                                            10

Calabrese, Alfred                                                                                             45

Calandra, John                                                                                                 44

59-60

Callei, Richard                                                                                                 39

Calo, Jasper                                                                                                     22

Camerota, Nicholas                                                                                          35

Camilleri, John V.                                                                                             39

Cammisano, Joseph                                                                                          46

Cammisano, William                                                                                         46

Campagna, Louis (Little New York)                                                            14, 15, 19

Cannon, Howard                                                                                              50

Capizzi, Vincenzo                                                                                             10, 14

Capone, Al (Scarface Al)                                                     6, 7, 9, 10, 14, 16, 21, 24

Caponigro, Antonio                                                                                          41

Cappola, Mike                                                                                                 49

Carabbia, Ronald                                                                                             45

Cardarella Anthony                                                                                           40

Carey, Estelle                                                                                                   14

Carfano, Anthony (Little Angie Pisano)                                                              24

Carollo, Sylvestro (Sam)                                                                             15, 16, 32

Carrollo Charles V.                                                                                    11, 13, 19

Casale, Michael                                                                                                33

Castellammarese War                                                                                 9, 10, 12

Castellano, Paul                                                                                   40, 41, 51, 52

Castellito, Anthony                                                                                           45

Cataldo, Dominic                                                                                              58

Catalano, Salvatore                                                                                          48

Catena, Gerado                                                                                                36

Cavallaro, Charles (Cadillac Charley)                                                                26

Carona, John Philip                                                                                   30, 32, 53

Cerrito, Joe                                                                                                      24

Chirico, Dominic                                                                                               35

Ciarcia, Kenneth                                                                                               45

Cisternino, Pasquale                                                                                         45

Civella, Anthony                                                                                               40, 50

Civella, Carl                                                                                                     40, 50

Civella, Nicholas                                                                                  18, 39, 40, 46

Civello, Joseph Francis                                                                                     20, 32

Coll, Vincent (Mad Dog)                                                                                  10

Colletti, James                                                                                                  34, 40

Colombo, Joseph                                                                              9, 28, 30, 34, 43

Colosimo, James (Big Jim)                                                                                5

Coppolla, Leonard                                                                                           52

Corallo, Anthony                                                                                  51, 52, 55, 57

Costello, Frank                                                             9, 11, 12, 16, 19, 21, 26, 38

Crociata, Peter                                                                                                 30

Cucchiara, Frank                                                                                              42

Cutrone, John                                                                                                   43

D'Aquila, Salvatore (Toto)                                                                                6, 7, 8

D'Alessio Alexander                                                                                         34

D'Amico, Gaspare                                                                                            13

D'Andrea, Anthony                                                                                           5

Davidian, Abraham                                                                                           17

Davidoff, Harry                                                                                                54

DeCavalcante, Samuel Rizzo                                                                             28, 33

DeJohn, Nick                                                                                                   16

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Dellacroce, Aniello                                                                                           52

Delmore, Nicholas                                                                                            21, 28

Delucia, Paul (Paul "The Waiter" Ricca)                                                      14, 15, 36

Denero, Ignazio                                                                                                33

Deross, John                                                                                                    58

Desimonee Frank                                                                                             20, 30

Dewey, Thomas                                                                                               12, 18

DiBiase, Carmine                                                                                              37

DiCarlo, Joseph Peter                                                                                       5

DiGregorio, Gaspare                                                                                        32

DiPalermo, Joseph                                                                                            26

Diamond, Jack (Legs)                                                                                       10

Dibella, Thomas                                                                                                34

Didio, Thomas                                                                                                  41

Decidue Frank                                                                                                  43

Dioguardi, John                                                                                               20, 38

Dorfman, Allen M.                                                                                            50

Dragna, Jack                                                                                                    9, 20

Dragna, Louis Tom                                                                                           45

Drake, Janice                                                                                                   24

Driggs, Mario F.                                                                                               55

Eboli, Thomas                                                                                                  30; 36

Evola, Natale                                                                                                    32, 38

Ferrara, Sam                                                                                                    18

Ferrigno, Stephen                                                                                             8

Ferritto, Raymond                                                                                            45

Fino, Joseph                                                                                                     33, 39

Flegenheimer, Arthur (Dutch Schultz)                                                                12

Frangiamore, Sam                                                                                            39

Franzese, Michael                                                                                            52

Fratianno, Aladena (Jimmy) (James)                                                             44, 45, 48

Furnari, Christopher                                                                                          52, 57

Gagliano, Thomas                                                                                          8, 9, 17

Galante, Carmine (Lilo)                                                                         14, 38, 47, 52

Gallo, Joseph Gregory                                                                          24, 35, 43

Gallo, Larry                                                                                                     24

Gallo-Profaci War                                                                                            24, 28

Gambino, Antonio                                                                                            51

Cambino, Carlo                                                    7, 9, 17, 22, 24, 30, 37, 41, 43, 44

Gambino, Emanuel                                                                                            37

Gambino, Erasmo                                                                                             51

Gambino, Rosario                                                                                             51

Gargotta, Charles                                                                                             17

Gebardi, Vincent (Machine Gun McGurn)                                                         12

Genovese, Michael                                                                                           38

Genovese, Vito                                     9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 30, 31

Gentile, Nicolo                                                                                                  13

Giacona, Corrado                                                                                             15

Giancana, Sam                                                                                     18, 29, 39, 40

Giardano, Anthony                                                                                           35

Gigante, Vincent                                                                                               21

Gingello, Sam                                                                                                   41

Gizzo, Anthony                                                                                                 17, 18

Gotti, John                                                                                                 52, 53, 56

Graver, Clem                                                                                                    18

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Greene, Daniel Patrick                                                                                      44

Greenbaum, Gus                                                                                               23

Guardalabene, Peter                                                                                        5, 6

Guardalabene, Vito                                                                                           5

Guardalabene, Dr. Vito                                                                                    25

Hayes, Floyd R.                                                                                              28

Hennessey, David                                                                                             3

Hill, Virginia                                                                                                      16

Hoffa, James (Jimmy)                                                                           25, 41, 47

Hogan, Frank                                                                                                   37

Hoover, J. Edgar                                                                                              13

Humphrey, Murray (The Camel)                                                                       29

ITAR, ITWI and ITWP                                                                                   25

Iannielo Mathew                                                                                               42

Ida, Joseph (Joe)                                                                                              16, 23

Indelicato, Anthony                                                                                           52, 56

International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT)                                                    50, 54

International Longshoremen's Association (ILA)                                           18, 19, 47

Italian-U.S. Working Group on Drug Interdiction                                              51

Kansas City Massacre                                                                                      10

Kastel, Dandy Phil                                                                                            11, 26

Kefauver, Estes                                                                                                17       

Kennedy, John F.                                                                                             27

Kilpatrick, John A.                                                                                           25

Konigsberg, Harold                                                                                          45

Il Martello                                                                                                        14

LaRocca, Sebastian John                                                                                  14

LaGuardia, Fiorello H.                                                                                      11

LaPietra, Angelo                                                                                               53

Lanci, Thomas  .                                                                                               45

Langella Gennaro (Jerry Lang)                                                              52, 54, 55, 57

Lansky, Meyer                                                                                 9, 12, 16, 33, 36

Lanza, Francesco                                                                                             13

Lanza, James Joseph                                                                                        13, 25

Lazia John                                                                                                        11

Licata, Nicolo                                                                                 26, 30, 31, 36, 39

Licavoli, James T.                                                                            43, 44, 45, 49, 52

Lima, Anthony J.                                                                                              13, 18

Limone, Peter                                                                                                   35

LoCicero, Jack                                                                                                 48

Lombardo, Antonio                                                                                          6, 7

Lombardo, Joseph                                                                                            50, 53

Lenardo, Angelo                                                                                               50

Lonardo, Joseph                                                                                               6

Longo, Nicholas Mrs.                                                                                       12

Lucania, Salvatore (Lucky Luciano)                                 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 25, 42

Lucayan Beach Hotel                                                                                        28

Luchese, Thomas                                                                                8, 9, 17, 30, 34

Lumia, James                                                                                                    17

Maceo, Sam                                                                                                     17

Madden, Owen Victor (Owney)                                                                       29

Magaddino, Stefano (Steve)                                                                 5, 12, 31, 32, 37, 39

Magliocco, Joe                                                                                  7, 26, 27, 28, 49

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354

Malei, Anthony                                                                                                 39       

Mancuso, Myron                                                                                              40

Mangano, Phillip                                                                                               9, 17   

Mangano, Vincent                                                                                            8, 17   

Manzo, Frank                                                                                                   54

Maraniano, Salvatore.                                                                           8, 9, 10, 11     

Marcello Carlos                                                                                    16, 24, 31, 33

Marfeo Rudolph                                                                                               39

Mari, Frank                                                                                                      32       

Marino, Richard (Dick)                                                                                   41, 43

Marotta, Tom                                                                                                   41

Massa, Amos                                                                                                   50

Massaro, Jimmy (The Hammer)                                                                        41

Massaro, Vincenzo                                                                                           43

Masseria, Giuseppe                                                                                      8, 9, 12

Massy, Michael                                                                                                40

Mazzara, Gaetano                                                                                            54

McClellan, John L.                                                                                           21

Mclaughlin, George                                                                                           28

Meany, George                                                                                                18, 19

Mele Angelo                                                                                                     34

Merlino, Salvatore                                                                                            49

Merlo, Mike                                                                                                     4

Milano, Anthony                                                                                               46

Milano, Carman                                                                                                57

Milano, Frank,                                                                                         8, 9, 11, 33

Milano, Peter John                                                                                35, 39, 51, 57

Milazzo, Gaspare.                                                                                             8

Miller, Vernon                                                                                                  10

Minso, Manfredi                                                                                               8

Mirabile Antonio                                                                                               19, 23

Moceri, Leo                                                                                                     43

Monastero, Steve                                                                                             7

Montemarano, Dominic                                                                                    57

Moran, George (Bugs)                                                                                   7, 21

Moranzano, Salvatore                                                                                       49

Moretti, Willie                                                                                                  17

Mori Operation                                                                                                 49

Moriarity, Vincent (Newsboy)                                                                           26

Murder Incorporated                                                                                   14, 22, 47

Masao, Tony                                                                                                    22

Napoli, Vincent                                                                                                44

Napolitan, Joseph                                                                                             45

Narcotics Control Act of 1956                                                                          20

Nardi, John                                                                                                      41, 44

Nash, Dana Horton                                                                                          25

Nash, Frank                                                                                                     10

Naythons, Edwin E.                                                                                          56

Nitti, Frank                                                                                                     14, 15

Nixon, Richard                                                                                                 31

O'Banion, Dion                                                                                                 6

O'Malley, Thomas                                                                                            50

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Acts of 1968                                     31

Organized Crime Control Act of 1970                                                              33

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Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force Program (OCDETF)               49

Paladino, Lawrence                                                                                           42

Palermo, Sicily                                                                                      19, 20, 49

Palimeri, Anthony (Tony Grande)                                                                      44

Palma, Salvatore                                                                                               29

Pennicioli, Mario                                                                                               41

Pasqua, Frank                                                                                                  33

Patriarca, Raymond                                                       18, 30, 32, 33, 35, 39, 42, 51

Persico, Alphonse                                                                                             36, 38

Persico Carmine                                                                        37, 42, 52, 54, 55, 58

Piccaretto, Rene                                                                                               41

Piccolo, Nicholas                                                                                              49

Piero, Salvatore                                                                                                47

Pieri, Salvatore                                                                                     32, 33, 39

Pinzolo, Joseph                                                                                                8

Piranio, Carlo T.                                                                                               8

Piranio, Joseph T.                                                                                             8, 20

Plumeri, James D.                                                                                             34

Polizzi, Alfred (Big Al)                                                                                     11, 15

Porello, Joe                                                                                                      7

Presser, Jackie (William)                                                                                   41, 54

Priziola, Giovanno                                                                                             47

Profaci, Joseph (Joe)                                                         7, 9, 13, 19, 24, 25, 28, 49

Profaci, Camilla                                                                                                19

Prohibition                                                                                              5, 6, 11, 21

Provenzano, Anthony                                                                                        45, 46

Quasarano, Raffaele                                                                                         47

Queen, Richard                                                                                                55

Ragan, James M.                                                                                              15

Rastelli, Phillip                                                                                                  54

Rauccici, Pasquale                                                                                       43, 52, 56

Reina, Gaetano (Tommy)                                                                                  8

Reles, Abe                                                                                                       14

Renella, Frank                                                                                                  48

Revenue Act of 1951                                                                                        18

Riesel, Victor                                                                                                    20

Rizzitello, Michael                                                                                             48

Rizzo, Vincent                                                                                                  37

Roselli, John                                                                                                     14

Rothstein, Arnold                                                                                              7

Rucci, Louis                                                                                                     43

Ruggiero, Lefty                                                                                                51

Russo, Andrew                                                                                               58

Russo, Anthony                                                                                                47

Russo, Joseph                                                                                                  16

Russotti, Salvatore (Red)                                                                            36, 41, 43

Sabella, Mike                                                                                                   51

Salerno, Anthony                                                                       42, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57

Santoro, Salvatore                                                                                 52, 54, 55, 57

Saupp John                                                                                                      26

Scaglia, Pellegrino                                                                                             5

Scalise, Frank                                                                                              7, 9, 21

Scalise, Joe                                                                                                      21

Scalish, John                                                                                                     43

65

356

Scarfo, Nicodemo (Little Nicky)                                                            49, 54, 56, 58

Sciacca, Paul                                                                                                    31, 34

Scialo, Dominick                                                                                              39

Scibelli, Francesco                                                                                            42

Sciortino, Onofrio                                                                                             24

Sciortino, Samuel (Sam)                                                                               36, 39, 45

Scopo, Ralph                                                                                                   55, 57

Scotto, Anthony                                                                                               47

Scozzari, Simone                                                                                              26

Senate permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (McClellan Committee)        27

Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor Management Field                                                                                                                 21

Senate Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce 17

Sentner, Henry Robert                                                                                      37

Sheridan, William J.                                                                                          28

Shoulder, Louis                                                                                                36

Sicilian Vespers                                                                                                10

Siegel, Benjamin (Bugsy)                                                                                  16

Sinito, Thomas                                                                                                 45

Siragusa, Joseph                                                                                              7, 9

Smaldone, Clarence                                                                                          50

Smaldone, Eugene                                                                                            50

Smith, William                                                                                                  48

Spatola, Anthony                                                                                              51

Spero, Carl                                                                                                      40

Spero, Joe                                                                                                        40

Spero, Mike                                                                                                     40

Spilotro, Anthony                                                                                             53

Spilotro, Michael                                                                                              53

Spinuzzi, Joseph (Scotty)                                                                                 34, 40

Squillante, Vincent                                                                                             21, 24

St. Valentine's Day Massacre                                                                            7

Strollo, Anthony (Tony Bender)                                                                        25

Sylvester, Esther R.                                                                                          55

Testa, Philip Charles                                                                                         38, 48

Tieri, Frank                                                                                                 36, 42, 48

Tocco, Anthony                                                                                                19

Tocco, Jack                                                                                                     44

Tocco, Joe                                                                                                       13

Tocco, William                                                                                                 19

Todaro, Frank                                                                                                  15

Todaro, Richard J.                                                                                           37

Todaro, Salvatore (Black Sam)                                                                        6, 7

Torrio, Johnny  .                                                                                               5, 6

Touhy, Roger                                                                                                   24

Trafficante, Santo, Jr.                                                                                   19, 30, 57

Trafficante, Santo, Sr.                                                                                       17, 19

Tramunti, Carmine                                                                                            30, 38

Tresca, Carlo                                                                                                   14

Triplett, William G.                                                                                           25

Troia, Vincenzo                                                                                                11, 17

Trombino, Tony                                                                                                17

66

357

Truth in Lending Bill                                                                                          31

Turano, Guiseppe                                                                                             52

Twenty-First Amendment (21st)                                                                       11

Valachi, Joseph                                                                                           26, 27, 34

Valenti, Frank J.                                                                                          31, 35, 37

Valenti, Umberto                                                                                              6

Vallone, Joseph                                                                                                6, 18

Vario, Paul                                                                                                       54

Valentzas, Nick                                                                                                49

Villano, Paul                                                                                                     50

Vitale, Peter                                                                                                     47

Volpe, Arthur                                                                                                   10

Volpe, James                                                                                                    10

Volpe, John                                                                                                      10

Volpe, Joseph                                                                                                  46

Volstead Act                                                                                                    5

Welfare and Pension Disclosure Act                                                                  34

Williams, Roy L.                                                                                               50, 56

Yacovelli, Joseph                                                                                              37

Yale, Frankie (Uale)                                                                                         6

Zammuto, Joseph                                                                                             22       

Zannino, Illario                                                                                      35, 42, 56

Zerilli, Anthony                                                                                                19

Zerilli, Joe                                                                                                        13

Zerilli, Joseph                                                                                                   19, 44

Zito, Frank                                                                                                       39

Zwillman, Abner (Longie)                                                                                 10, 23

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358

BIBLIOGRAPHY

GOVERNMENT SOURCES

United States Senate, Hearings Before the Permanent Subcommittee on Organized Crime in America, Part 1, January 27, February 16, March 2 and 3, 1983.

United States Senate, Hearings Before the Permanent Subcommittee on Organized Crime in America, Part 2, May 20 and July 11, 1983.

United States Senate, Hearings Before the Permanent Subcommittee on the Profile of Organized Crime; Great Lakes Region, January 25, 26, 31, and February 1, 1984.

Numerous reports from the Federal Strike Forces

OTHER SOURCES

ORGANIZED CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES; A REVIEW OF THE PUBLIC RECORD. Notre Dame - Temple Organized Crime Research Program, (Original Draft) 1982.

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